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KDOQI (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative)  
NKF K/DOQI GUIDELINES 2000
 
 

 

C. REFERENCES (PEDIATRIC GUIDELINES)

Note: Asterisks indicate the citations that were used in the structured review of the literature.

1. Kopple JD, Swendseid ME: Protein and amino acid metabolism in uremic patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Kidney Int Suppl 7:S64-S72, 1975 (suppl 2)

2. Kopple JD: Dietary requirements, in Massry SG, Sellars AL (eds): Clinical Aspects of Uremia and Dialysis. Springfield, IL, Charles C. Thomas, 1976, pp 453-489

3. Blumenkrantz MJ, Kopple JD, Gutman RA, Chan YK, Barbour GL, Roberts C, Shen FH, Gandhi VC, Tucker CT, Curtis FK, Coburn JW: Methods for assessing nutritional status of patients with renal failure. Am J Clin Nutr 33:1567-1585, 1980

4. Bergstrom J: Nutritional requirements of hemodialysis patients, in Mitch WE, Klahr S (eds): Nutrition and the Kidney. Boston, MA, Little Brown, 1993, pp 65-95

*5. Guarnieri G, Faccini L, Lipartiti T, Ranieri F, Spangaro F, Giuntini D, Toigo G, Dardi F, Berquier-Vidali F, Raimondi A: Simple methods for nutritional assessment in hemodialyzed patients. Am J Clin Nutr 33:1598-1607, 1980

6. Harvey KB, Blumenkrantz MJ, Levine SE, Blackburn GL: Nutritional assessment and treatment of chronic renal failure. Am J Clin Nutr 33:1586-1597, 1980

7. Kopple JD: Effect of nutrition on morbidity and mortality in maintenance dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 24:1002-1009, 1994 (review)

8. Jones MR: Etiology of severe malnutrition: Results of an international cross-sectional study in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 23:412-420, 1994

9. Orejas G, Santos F, Malaga S, Rey C, Cobo A, Simarro M: Nutritional status of children with moderate chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 9:52-56, 1995

*10. Owen WF Jr, Lew NL, Liu Y, Lowrie EG, Lazarus JM: The urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration as predictors of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 329:1001-1006, 1993

11. Warady BA, Hebert D, Sullivan EK, Alexander SR, Tejani A: Renal transplantation, chronic dialysis, and chronic renal insufficiency in children and adolescents. The 1995 Annual Report of the North Am Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study. Pediatr Nephrol 11:49-64, 1997

*12. Betts PR, Magrath G: Growth pattern and dietary intake of children with chronic renal insufficiency. BMJ 2:189-193, 1974

13. Stickler GB, Bergen BJ: A review: Short stature in renal disease. Pediatr Res 7:978-982, 1973

14. Nelson P, Stover J: Nutrition recommendations for infants, children, and adolescents with end-stage renal disease, in Gillit D, Stover J (eds): A Clinical Guide to Nutrition Care in End-Stage Renal Disease. Chicago, IL, American Dietetic Association, 1994, pp 79-97

15. Secker D, Pencharz MB: Nutritional therapy for children on CAPD/CCPD: Theory and practice, in Fine RN, Alexander SR, Warady BA (eds): CAPD/CCPD in Children. Boston, MA, Kluwer Academic, 1998, pp 567-603

*16. Chan JC: Late complications of long-term hemodialysis in children: Clinical aspects and some measurable variables concerning parathyroid hormone, divalent ions, acid-base metabolism, anemia, nutrition, growth and survival data. J Urol 120:578-585, 1978

17. Baum M, Powell D, Calvin S, McDaid T, McHenry K, Mar H, Potter D: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in children: Comparison with hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 307:1537-1542, 1982

18. McSherry E, Morris RC Jr: Attainment and maintenance of normal stature with alkali therapy in infants and children with classic renal tubular acidosis. J Clin Invest 61:509-527, 1978

19. Ballmer PE, McNurlan MA, Hulter HN, Anderson SE, Garlick PJ, Krapf R: Chronic metabolic acidosis decreases albumin synthesis and induces negative nitrogen balance in humans. J Clin Invest 95:39-45, 1995

20. May RC, Kelly RA, Mitch WE: Mechanisms for defects in muscle protein metabolism in rats with chronic uremia. Influence of metabolic acidosis. J Clin Invest 79:1099-1103, 1987

21. Challa A, Chan W, Krieg RJ Jr, Thabet MA, Liu F, Hintz RL, Chan JC: Effect of metabolic acidosis on the expression of insulin-like growth factor and growth hormone receptor. Kidney Int 44:1224-1227, 1993

22. Challa A, Krieg RJ Jr, Thabet MA, Veldhuis JD, Chan JC: Metabolic acidosis inhibits growth hormone secretion in rats: Mechanism of growth retardation. Am J Physiol 265:E547-E553, 1993

23. NKF-DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Hemodialysis Adequacy. New York, NY, National Kidney Foundation, 1997, pp 42-50

24. Harmon WE, Spinozzi NS, Sargent JR, Grupe WE: Determination of protein catabolic rate (PCR) in children on hemodialysis by urea kinetic modeling. Pediatr Res 13:513-513, 1979

25. Harmon WE, Spinozzi NS, Meyer A, Grupe WE: The use of protein catabolic rate to monitor pediatric hemodialysis. Dial Transpl 10:324-330, 1981

26. Grupe WE, Harmon WE, Spinozzi NS: Protein and energy requirements in children receiving chronic hemodialysis. Kidney Int Suppl 15:S6-10, 1983

27. Tom A, McCauley L, Bell L, Rodd C, Espinosa P, Yu G, Yu J, Girardin C, Sharma A: Growth during maintenance hemodialysis: Impact of enhanced nutrition and clearance. J Pediatr 134:464-471, 1999

28. Schaefer F, Klaus G, Mehls O: Peritoneal transport properties and dialysis dose affect growth and nutritional status in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Mid- European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group. J Am Soc Nephrol 10:1786-1792, 1999

29. Schaefer F, Wolf S, Klaus G, Langenbeck D, Mehls O: Higher KT/V urea associated with greater protein catabolic rate and dietary protein intake in children treated with CCPD compared to CAPD. Mid-European Pediatric CPD Study Group (MPCS). Adv Perit Dial 10:310-314, 1994

*30. Fischbach M, Terzic J, Lahlou A, Burger MC, Eyer D, Desprez P, Geisert J: Nutritional effects of KT/V in children on peritoneal dialysis: Are there benefits from larger dialysis doses? Adv Perit Dial 11:306-308, 1995

31. Coleman JE, Norman L, Watson AR: Provision of dietetic care in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. J Renal Nutr 9:145-148, 1999

32. Spinozzi NS, Nelson P: Nutrition support in the newborn intensive care unit. J Renal Nutr 6:188-197, 1996

33. Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council: Recommended Dietary Allowances (ed 10). Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1989

34. Committee on Nutrition, American Academy of Pediatrics: Pediatric Nutrition Handbook (ed 4). 1998, pp 126, 489, 648-649

*35. Broyer M, Niaudet P, Champion G, Jean G, Chopin N, Czernichow P: Nutritional and metabolic studies in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int Suppl 15:S106-S110, 1983

*36. Salusky IB, Fine RN, Nelson P, Blumenkrantz M, Kopple JD: Nutritional status of children undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Clin Nutr 38:599-611, 1983

37. Simmons JM, Wilson CJ, Potter DE, Holliday MA: Relation of calorie deficiency to growth failure in children on hemodialysis and the growth response to calorie supplementation. N Engl J Med 285:653-656, 1971

*38. Arnold WC, Danford D, Holliday MA: Effects of caloric supplementation on growth in children with uremia. Kidney Int 24:205-209, 1983

*39. Zadik Z, Frishberg Y, Drukker A, Blachar Y, Lotan D, Levi S, Reifen R: Excessive dietary protein and suboptimal caloric intake have a negative effect on the growth of children with chronic renal disease before and during growth hormone therapy. Metabolism 47:264-268, 1998

40. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure. Am J Kidney Dis 35:S17-S104, 2000 (suppl 2)

41. Slomowitz LA, Monteon FJ, Grosvenor M, Laidlaw SA, Kopple JD: Effect of energy intake on nutritional status in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 35:704-711, 1989

42. Quan A, Baum M: Protein losses in children on continuous cycler peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 10:728-731, 1996

43. Edefonti A, Picca M, Damiani B, Loi S, Ghio L, Giani M, Consalvo G, Grassi MR: Dietary prescription based on estimated nitrogen balance during peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 13:253-258, 1999

44. Nelson P, Stover J: Principles of nutritional assessment and management of the child with ESRD, in Fine RN, Gruskin AB (eds): End Stage Renal Disease in Children. Philadelphia, PA, Saunders, 1984, pp 209-226

*45. Blumenkrantz MJ, Kopple JD, Moran JK, Grodstein GP, Coburn JW: Nitrogen and urea metabolism during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 20:78-82, 1981

46. Makoff R, Dwyer J, Rocco MV: Folic acid, pyridoxine, cobalamin, and homocysteine and their relationship to cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease. J Renal Nutr 6:2-11, 1996

47. Makoff R: Water-soluble vitamin status in patients with renal disease treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. J Renal Nutr 1:56-73, 1991

48. Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW: Dietary Reference Intakes: The new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 98:699-706, 1998

49. Institute of Medicine FNB: Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Folate, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1998

*50. Coleman JE, Watson AR: Micronutrient supplementation in children on continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). Adv Perit Dial 8:396-401, 1992

*51. Kriley M, Warady BA: Vitamin status of pediatric patients receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis. Am J Clin Nutr 53:1476-1479, 1991

*52. Warady BA, Kriley M, Alon U, Hellerstein S: Vitamin status of infants receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 8:354-356, 1994

53. Marcus R, Coulston AM: Fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins A, K, and E, in Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Goodman, Gilman A (eds): The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York, NY, McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp 1573-1590

*54. Ruley EJ, Bock GH, Kerzner B, Abbott AW, Majd M, Chatoor I: Feeding disorders and gastroesophageal reflux in infants with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 3:424-429, 1989

55. Yiu VW, Harmon WE, Spinozzi NS, Jonas M, Kim MS: High calorie nutrition for infants with chronic renal disease. J Renal Nutr 6:203-206, 1996

*56. Warady BA, Weis L, Johnson L: Nasogastric tube feeding in infants on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 16:S521-S525, 1996 (suppl 1)

57. Geary DF, Chait PG: Tube feeding in infants on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 16:S517-S520, 1996 (suppl 1)

58. Watson AR, Coleman JE, Taylor EA: Gastrostomy buttons for feeding children on continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 8:391-395, 1992

*59. Coleman JE, Watson AR, Rance CH, Moore E: Gastrostomy buttons for nutritional support on chronic dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:2041-2046, 1998

60. Watson AR, Coleman JE, Warady BA: When and how to use nasogastric and gastrostomy feeding for nutritional support in infants and children on CAPD/CCPD, in Fine RN, Alexander SR, Warady BA (eds): CAPD/CCPD in Children. Boston,MA, Kluwer Academic, 1998, pp 281-300

61. Kamen RS: Impaired development of oral-motor functions required for normal oral feeding as a consequence of tube feeding during infancy. Adv Perit Dial 6:276-278, 1990

*62. Strologo LD, Principato F, Sinibaldi D, Appiani AC, Terzi F, Dartois AM, Rizzoni G: Feeding dysfunction in infants with severe chronic renal failure after long-term nasogastric tube feeding. Pediatr Nephrol 11:84-86, 1997

*63. Canepa A, Perfumo F, Carrea A, Giallongo F, Verrina E, Cantaluppi A, Gusmano R: Long-term effect of amino-acid dialysis solution in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 5:215-219, 1991

*64. Hanning RM, Balfe JW, Zlotkin SH: Effectiveness and nutritional consequences of amino acid-based vs glucose-based dialysis solutions in infants and children receiving CAPD. Am J Clin Nutr 46:22-30, 1987

65. Hanning RM, Balfe JW, Zlotkin SH: Effect of amino acid containing dialysis solutions on plasma amino acid profiles in children with chronic renal failure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 6:942-947, 1987

66. Powell DR, Liu F, Baker BK, Hintz RL, Lee PD, Durham SK, Brewer ED, Frane JW, Watkins SL, Hogg RJ: Modulation of growth factors by growth hormone in children with chronic renal failure. The Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group. Kidney Int 51:1970-1979, 1997

67. Tonshoff B, Cronin MJ, Reichert M, Haffner D, Wingen AM, Blum WF, Mehls O: Reduced concentration of serum growth hormone (GH)-binding protein in children with chronic renal failure: correlation with GH insensitivity. The European Study Group for Nutritional Treatment of Chronic Renal Failure in Childhood. The German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:1007-1013, 1997

68. Fine RN, Kohaut EC, Brown D, Perlman AJ: Growth after recombinant human growth hormone treatment in children with chronic renal failure: Report of a multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Genentech Cooperative Study Group. J Pediatr 124:374-382, 1994

*69. Schaefer F, Wuhl E, Haffner D, Mehls O: Stimulation of growth by recombinant human growth hormone in children undergoing peritoneal or hemodialysis treatment. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure. Adv Perit Dial 10:321-326, 1994

*70. Berard E, Crosnier H, Six-Beneton A, Chevallier T, Cochat P, Broyer M: Recombinant human growth hormone treatment of children on hemodialysis. French Society of Pediatric Nephrology. Pediatr Nephrol 12:304-310, 1998

*71. Wuhl E, Haffner D, Tonshoff B, Mehls O: Predictors of growth response to rhGH in short children before and after renal transplantation. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure. Kidney Int Suppl 43:S76-S82, 1993

*72. Wuhl E, Haffner D, Nissel R, Schaefer F, Mehls O: Short dialyzed children respond less to growth hormone than patients prior to dialysis. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure. Pediatr Nephrol 10:294-298, 1996

73. Sieniawska M, Panczyk-Tomaszewska M, Ziolkowska H: The influence of growth hormone treatment on bone metabolism in dialysis patients. Br J Clin Pract Suppl 85:61-63, 1996

74. Hamill PVV, Drizd TA, Johnson CL, Reed RB, Roche AF: NCHS Growth Curves for Children 0-18 Years: United States, Series 11, No. 165. Washington, DC, National Center for Health Statistics, Public Health Service, US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1977

75. Frisancho AR: New norms of upper limb fat and muscle areas for assessment of nutritional status. Am J Clin Nutr 34:2540-2545, 1981

76. Massie MD, Kazuhiko N, Yang W, Chan J: Nutritional assessment of children with chronic renal insufficiency. J Renal Nutr 2:1-12, 1992

The following articles were used in the structured review for the pediatric clinical practice guidelines but were not cited in the text for these guidelines.

*77. Abitbol CL, Warady BA, Massie MD, Baluarte HJ, Fleischman LE, Geary DF, Kaiser BA, McEnery PT, Chan JC: Linear growth and anthropometric and nutritional measurements in children with mild to moderate renal insufficiency: A report of the Growth Failure in Children with Renal Diseases Study. J Pediatr 116:S46-S54, 1990

*78. Balfe JW, Secker DJ, Coulter PE, Balfe JA, Geary DF: Tube feeding in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 6:257-261, 1990

*79. Besbas N, Ozdemir S, Saatci U, Coskun T, Ozen S, Topaloglu R, Bakkaloglu A, El Nahas AM: Nutritional assessment of children on haemodialysis: Value of IGF-I, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:1484-1488, 1998

*80. Betts PR, Magrath G, White RH: Role of dietary energy supplementation in growth of children with chronic renal insufficiency. Br Med J 1:416-418, 1977

*81. Brewer ED: Growth of small children managed with chronic peritoneal dialysis and nasogastric tube feedings: 203-month experience in 14 patients. Adv Perit Dial 6:269-272, 1990

*82. Broyer M, Kleinknecht C, Loirat C, Marti-Henneberg C, Roy MP: Growth in children treated with long-term hemodialysis. J Pediatr 84:642-649, 1974

*83. Canepa A, Divino Filho JC, Forsberg AM, Perfumo F, Carrea A, Verrina E, Podesta E, Gusmano R, Bergstrom J: Children on continuous ambulatorial peritoneal dialysis: Muscle and plasma proteins, amino acids and nutritional status. Clin Nephrol 46:125-131, 1996

*84. Claris-Appiani A, Ardissino GL, Dacco V, Funari C, Terzi F: Catch-up growth in children with chronic renal failure treated with long-term enteral nutrition. J Parent Enteral Nutr 19:175-178, 1995

*85. Cochat P, Braillon P, Feber J, Hadj-Aissa A, Dubourg L, Liponski I, Said MH, Glastre C, Meunier PJ, David L: Body composition in children with renal disease: Use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pediatr Nephrol 10:264-268, 1996

*86. Dabbagh S, Fassinger N, Clement K, Fleischmann LE: The effect of aggressive nutrition on infection rates in patients maintained on peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 7:161-164, 1991

*87. Fine RN, Koch VH, Boechat MI, Lippe BH, Nelson PA, Fine SE, Sherman BM: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment of children undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 10:209-214, 1990

*88. Greco M, Cappa M, Perruzza I, Rizzoni G: Can provocative growth hormone testing predict the response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment? Br J Clin Pract 85:38-40, 1996 (suppl)

*89. Hodson EM, Brown AS, Roy LP, Rosenberg AR: Insulin-like growth factor-1, growth hormone-dependent insulin-like growth factor-binding protein and growth in children with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 6:433-438, 1992

*90. Hokken-Koelega AC, Stijnen T, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM, Wit JM, Wolff ED, de Jong MC, Donckerwolcke RA, Abbad NC, Bot A, Blum WF: Placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial of growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with chronic renal failure. Lancet 338:585-590, 1991

*91. Honda M, Kamiyama Y, Kawamura K, Kawahara K, Shishido S, Nakai H, Kawamura T, Ito H: Growth, development and nutritional status in Japanese children under 2 years on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 9:543-548, 1995

*92. Jasper HG, Ferraris JR: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and growth in children undergoing hemodialysis or after successful renal transplantation. Medicina (B Aires) 51:127-132, 1991

*93. Kaiser BA, Polinsky MS, Stover J, Morgenstern BZ, Baluarte HJ: Growth of children following the initiation of dialysis: A comparison of three dialysis modalities. Pediatr Nephrol 8:733-738, 1994

*94. Kist-van Holthe tot Echten JE, Nauta J, Hop WC, de Jong MC, Reitsma-Bierens WC, Ploos van Amstel SL, van Acker KJ, Noordzij CM, Wolff ED: Protein restriction in chronic renal failure. Arch Dis Child 68:371-375, 1993

*95. Kleinknecht C, Broyer M, Gagnadoux MF, Martihenneberg C, Dartois AM, Kermanach C, Pouliquen M, Degoulet P, Usberti M, Roy MP: Growth in children treated with long-term dialysis. A study of 76 patients. Adv Nephrol Necker Hosp 9:133-163, 1980

*96. Kohaut EC: Growth in children treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Int J Pediatr Nephrol 4:93-98, 1983

*97. Laron Z, Wang XL, Klinger B, Silbergeld A, Davidovits M, Eisenstein B, Wilcken DE: Growth hormone treatment increases circulating lipoprotein(a) in children with chronic renal failure. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 9:533-537, 1996

*98. Lippe B, Yadin O, Fine RN, Moulton L, Nelson PA: Use of recombinant human growth hormone in children with chronic renal insufficiency: An update. Horm Res 40:102-108, 1993

*99. Macdonald A: The practical problems of nutritional support for children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr 40:253-261, 1986

*100. Querfeld U, Salusky IB, Nelson P, Foley J, Fine RN: Hyperlipidemia in pediatric patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 2:447-452, 1988

*101. Ratsch IM, Catassi C, Verrina E, Gusmano R, Appiani A, Bettinelli A, Picca S, Rizzoni G, Fabian-Bach C, Wingen AM: Energy and nutrient intake of patients with mild-to-moderate chronic renal failure compared with healthy children: An Italian multicentre study. Eur J Pediatr 151:701-705, 1992

*102. Rizzoni G, Basso T, Setari M: Growth in children with chronic renal failure on conservative treatment. Kidney Int 26:52-58, 1984

*103. Schwartz ID, Warady BA, Buchanan CL, Reed L, Hussey LM, Howard CP, Hellerstein S, Grunt JA: "Low-dose" growth hormone therapy during peritoneal dialysis or following renal transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol 9:320-324, 1995

*104. Stefanidis C, Siapera D, Papadopoulou A, Michelis K: Body composition of children on CAPD. Perit Dial Int 16:S561-S566, 1996 (suppl)

*105. Tonshoff B, Mehis O, Heinrich U, Blum WF, Ranke MB, Schauer A: Growth-stimulating effects of recombinant human growth hormone in children with end-stage renal disease. J Pediatr 116:561-566, 1990

*106. Tonshoff B, Dietz M, Haffner D, Tonshoff C, Stover B, Mehls O: Effects of two years of growth hormone treatment in short children with renal disease. The German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 379:33-41, 1991

*107. Uauy RD, Hogg RJ, Brewer ED, Reisch JS, Cunningham C, Holliday MA: Dietary protein and growth in infants with chronic renal insufficiency: A report from the Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group and the University of California, San Francisco. Pediatr Nephrol 8:45-50, 1994

*108. Vaisman N, Zadik Z, Duchan R, Voet H, Lotan D, Drukker A: Changes in body composition of children with chronic renal failure during growth hormone treatment. Pediatr Nephrol 8:201-204, 1994

*109. Wingen AM, Fabian-Bach C, Mehls O: Multicentre randomized study on the effect of a low-protein diet on the progression of renal failure in childhood: One-year results. European Study Group for Nutritional Treatment of Chronic Renal Failure in Childhood. Miner Electrolyte Metab 18:303-308, 1992

*110. Zachwieja J, Duran M, Joles JA, Allers PJ, van de Hurk D, Frankhuisen JJ, Donckerwolcke RA: Amino acid and carnitine supplementation in haemodialysed children. Pediatr Nephrol 8:739-743, 1994

*111. Zlotkin SH, Rundle MA, Hanning RM, Buchanan BE, Balfe JW: Zinc absorption from glucose and amino acid dialysis solutions in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). J Am Coll Nutr 6:345-350, 1987

 


 

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