KDOQI (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative)


Published KDOQI Guidelines Are Available Online – click here.

KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease


1. Dirks JH, de Zeeuw D, Agarwal SK, et al: Prevention of chronic kidney and vascular disease: Toward global health equity—The Bellagio 2004 Declaration. Kidney Int Suppl 98:S1-S6, 2005

2. Lysaght MJ: Maintenance dialysis population dynamics: Current trends and long-term implications. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:S37-S40, 2002 (suppl 1)

3. National Kidney Foundation: K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 39:S1-266, 2002 (suppl 1)

4. US Renal Data System: USRDS 2004 Annual Data Report. The National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, 2004

5. National Kidney Foundation: K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines on Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 43:S1-S290, 2004 (suppl 1)

6. National Kidney Foundation: K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Dyslipidemias in Patients With Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 41:S1-S91, 2003 (suppl 3)

7. National Kidney Foundation:K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bone Metabolism and Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 42:S1-S201, 2003 (suppl 3)

8. National Kidney Foundation: K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 47:S1-S145, 2006 (suppl 3)

9. National Kidney Foundation: K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure. Am J Kidney Dis 35:S1-S140, 2000 (suppl 2)

10. National Kidney Foundation:K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease in Dialysis Patients. Am J Kidney Dis 45:S1-S153, 2005 (suppl 3)

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13. Zimmet P: Globalization, coca-colonization and the chronic disease epidemic: Can the doomsday scenario be averted? J Intern Med 247:301-310, 2000

14. Engelgau MM, Geiss LS, Saaddine JB, et al: The evolving diabetes burden in the United States. Ann Intern Med 140:945-950, 2004

15. Burke JP, Williams K, Gaskill SP, Hazuda HP, Haffner SM, Stern MP: Rapid rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes from 1987 to 1996: Results from the San Antonio Heart Study. Arch Intern Med 159:1450-1456, 1999

16. Gu K, Cowie CC, Harris MI: Diabetes and decline in heart disease mortality in US adults. JAMA 281:1291-1297, 1999

17. Gale EA: The rise of childhood type 1 diabetes in the 20th century. Diabetes 51:3353-3361, 2002

18. Boyle JP, Honeycutt AA, Narayan KM, et al: Projection of diabetes burden through 2050: Impact of changing demography and disease prevalence in the U.S. Diabetes Care 24:1936-1940, 2001

19. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H: Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 27:1047-1053, 2004

20. Colagiuri S, Borch-Johnsen K, Glumer C, Vistisen D: There really is an epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 48:1459-1463, 2005

21. US Renal Data System: USRDS 2005 Annual Data Report. The National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, 2005

22. Motala AA, Pirie FJ, Gouws E, Amod A, Omar MA: Microvascular complications in South African patients with long-duration diabetes mellitus. S Afr Med J 91:987-992, 2001

23. Wanjohi FW, Otieno FC, Ogola EN, Amayo EO: Nephropathy in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus in black Africans. East Afr Med J 79:399-404, 2002

24. Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Latha E, Vijay V, Viswanathan M: Rising prevalence of NIDDM in an urban population in India. Diabetologia 40:232-237, 1997

25. Simmons D, Schaumkel J, Cecil A, Scott DJ, Kenealy T: High impact of nephropathy on five-year mortality rates among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from a multi-ethnic population in New Zealand. Diabet Med 16:926-931, 1999

26. Park JY, Kim HK, Chung YE, Kim SW, Hong SK, Lee KU: Incidence and determinants of microalbuminuria in Koreans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 21:530-534, 1998

27. Wu AY, Kong NC, de Leon FA, et al: An alarmingly high prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in Asian type 2 diabetic patients: The MicroAlbuminuria Prevalence (MAP) Study. Diabetologia 48:17-26, 2005

28. Sobngwi E, Mauvais-Jarvis F, Vexiau P, Mbanya JC, Gautier JF: Diabetes in Africans. Part 1: Epidemiology and clinical specificities. Diabetes Metab 27:628-634, 2001

29. Earle KK, Porter KA, Ostberg J, Yudkin JS: Variation in the progression of diabetic nephropathy according to racial origin. Nephrol Dial Transplant 16:286-290, 2001

30. Koppiker N, Feehally J, Raymond N, Abrams KR, Burden AC: Rate of decline in renal function in Indo-Asians and whites with diabetic nephropathy. Diabet Med 15:60-65, 1998

31. Chandie Shaw PK, van Es LA, Paul LC, Rosendaal FR, Souverijn JH, Vandenbroucke JP: Renal disease in relatives of Indo-Asian type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage diabetic nephropathy. Diabetologia 46:618-624, 2003

32. Chandie Shaw PK, Vandenbroucke JP, Tjandra YI, et al: Increased end-stage diabetic nephropathy in Indo-Asian immigrants living in The Netherlands. Diabetologia 45:337-341, 2002

33. Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Shaw J: Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature 414:782-787, 2001

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35. Molitch ME, DeFronzo RA, Franz MJ, et al: Nephropathy in diabetes. Diabetes Care 27:S79-S83, 2004 (suppl 1)

36. Feldt-Rasmussen B: Microalbuminuria and clinical nephropathy in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: Pathophysiological mechanisms and intervention studies. Dan Med Bull 36:405-415, 1989

37. Haffner SM, Lehto S, Ronnemaa T, Pyorala K, Laakso M: Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 339:229-234, 1998

38. Grundy SM, Howard B, Smith S Jr, Eckel R, Redberg R, Bonow RO: Prevention Conference VI: Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: Executive summary: Conference proceeding for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the American Heart Association. Circulation 105:2231-2239, 2002

39. Sarnak MJ, Levey AS, Schoolwerth AC, et al: Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: A statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 108:2154-2169, 2003

40. Dinneen SF, Gerstein HC: The association of microalbuminuria and mortality in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A systematic overview of the literature. Arch Intern Med 157:1413-1418, 1997

41. Adler AI, Stevens RJ, Manley SE, Bilous RW, Cull CA, Holman RR: Development and progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 64). Kidney Int 63:225-232, 2003

42. Miettinen H, Haffner SM, Lehto S, Ronnemaa T, Pyorala K, Laakso M: Proteinuria predicts stroke and other atherosclerotic vascular disease events in nondiabetic and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Stroke 27:2033-2039, 1996

43. Valmadrid CT, Klein R, Moss SE, Klein BE: The risk of cardiovascular disease mortality associated with microalbuminuria and gross proteinuria in persons with older-onset diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 160:1093-1100, 2000

44. Foley RN, Murray AM, Li S, et al: Chronic kidney disease and the risk for cardiovascular disease, renal replacement, and death in the United States Medicare population, 1998 to 1999. J Am Soc Nephrol 16:489-495, 2005

45. Gaede P, Vedel P, Larsen N, Jensen GV, Parving HH, Pedersen O: Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 348:383-393, 2003

46. Gaede P, Vedel P, Parving HH, Pedersen O: Intensified multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria: The Steno type 2 randomised study. Lancet 353:617-622, 1999

47. Carey VJ, Walters EE, Colditz GA, et al: Body fat distribution and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. The Nurses' Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 145:614-619, 1997

48. Chan JM, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC: Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 17:961-969, 1994

49. Kaye SA, Folsom AR, Sprafka JM, Prineas RJ, Wallace RB: Increased incidence of diabetes mellitus in relation to abdominal adiposity in older women. J Clin Epidemiol 44:329-334, 1991

50. Lundgren H, Bengtsson C, Blohme G, Lapidus L, Sjostrom L: Adiposity and adipose tissue distribution in relation to incidence of diabetes in women: Results from a prospective population study in Gothenburg, Sweden. Int J Obes 13:413-423, 1989

51. Ohlson LO, Larsson B, Svardsudd K, et al: The influence of body fat distribution on the incidence of diabetes mellitus. 13.5 Years of follow-up of the participants in the study of men born in 1913. Diabetes 34:1055-1058, 1985

52. Sargeant LA, Bennett FI, Forrester TE, Cooper RS, Wilks RJ: Predicting incident diabetes in Jamaica: The role of anthropometry. Obes Res 10:792-798, 2002

53. Warne DK, Charles MA, Hanson RL, et al: Comparison of body size measurements as predictors of NIDDM in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care 18:435-439, 1995

54. Wei M, Gaskill SP, Haffner SM, Stern MP: Waist circumference as the best predictor of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) compared to body mass index, waist/hip ratio and other anthropometric measurements in Mexican Americans—A 7-year prospective study. Obes Res 5:16-23, 1997

55. Tulloch-Reid MK, Williams DE, Looker HC, Hanson RL, Knowler WC: Do measures of body fat distribution provide information on the risk of type 2 diabetes in addition to measures of general obesity? Comparison of anthropometric predictors of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care 26:2556-2561, 2003

56. Chagnac A, Weinstein T, Korzets A, Ramadan E, Hirsch J, Gafter U: Glomerular hemodynamics in severe obesity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 278:F817-F822, 2000

57. Ribstein J, du Cailar G, Mimran A: Combined renal effects of overweight and hypertension. Hypertension 26:610-615, 1995

58. Folsom AR, Kushi LH, Hong CP: Physical activity and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women. Am J Public Health 90:134-138, 2000

59. Helmrich SP, Ragland DR, Leung RW, Paffenbarger RS Jr: Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 325:147-152, 1991

60. Kriska AM, Saremi A, Hanson RL, et al: Physical activity, obesity, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a high-risk population. Am J Epidemiol 158:669-675, 2003

61. Manson JE, Nathan DM, Krolewski AS, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hennekens CH: A prospective study of exercise and incidence of diabetes among US male physicians. JAMA 268:63-67, 1992

62. Manson JE, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, et al: Physical activity and incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. Lancet 338:774-778, 1991

63. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al: Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346:393-403, 2002

64. Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, et al: Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 20:537-544, 1997

65. Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, et al: Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 344:1343-1350, 2001

66. Molitch ME, Fujimoto W, Hamman RF, Knowler WC: The diabetes prevention program and its global implications. J Am Soc Nephrol 14:S103-S107, 2003 (suppl 2)

67. Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Vinitha R, et al: Prevalence of overweight in urban Indian adolescent school children. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 57:185-190, 2002

68. Pazmino PA, Pazmino AK: Diabetic renal failure in Texas: Influence of ethnicity and household income. Tex Med 99:57-65, 2003

69. Brancati FL, Whelton PK, Kuller LH, Klag MJ: Diabetes mellitus, race, and socioeconomic status. A population-based study. Ann Epidemiol 6:67-73, 1996

70. Hazuda HP, Haffner SM, Stern MP, Eifler CW: Effects of acculturation and socioeconomic status on obesity and diabetes in Mexican Americans. The San Antonio Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol 128:1289-1301, 1988

71. Alberti G, Zimmet P, Shaw J, Bloomgarden Z, Kaufman F, Silink M: Type 2 diabetes in the young: The evolving epidemic: The International Diabetes Federation Consensus Workshop. Diabetes Care 27:1798-1811, 2004

72. Singh R, Shaw J, Zimmet P: Epidemiology of childhood type 2 diabetes in the developing world. Pediatr Diabetes 5:154-168, 2004

73. Acton KJ, Burrows NR, Moore K, Querec L, Geiss LS, Engelgau MM: Trends in diabetes prevalence among American Indian and Alaska native children, adolescents, and young adults. Am J Public Health 92:1485-1490, 2002

74. Kitagawa T, Owada M, Urakami T, Yamauchi K: Increased incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus among Japanese schoolchildren correlates with an increased intake of animal protein and fat. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 37:111-115, 1998

75. Urakami T, Kubota S, Nitadori Y, Harada K, Owada M, Kitagawa T: Annual incidence and clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetes in children as detected by urine glucose screening in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Diabetes Care 28:1876-1881, 2005

76. Dabelea D, Hanson RL, Bennett PH, Roumain J, Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ: Increasing prevalence of type II diabetes in American Indian children. Diabetologia 41:904-910, 1998

77. Pettitt DJ, Baird HR, Aleck KA, Bennett PH, Knowler WC: Excessive obesity in offspring of Pima Indian women with diabetes during pregnancy. N Engl J Med 308:242-245, 1983

78. Fagot-Campagna A, Pettitt DJ, Engelgau MM, et al: Type 2 diabetes among North American children and adolescents: An epidemiologic review and a public health perspective. J Pediatr 136:664-672, 2000

79. Krakoff J, Lindsay RS, Looker HC, Nelson RG, Hanson RL, Knowler WC: Incidence of retinopathy and nephropathy in youth-onset compared with adult-onset type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26:76-81, 2003

80. Pavkov ME, Bennett PH, Knowler WC, Krakoff J, Sievers ML, Nelson RG: Effect of youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus on incidence of end-stage renal disease and mortality in young and middle-aged Pima Indians. JAMA 296:421-426, 2006

81. Lee ET, Keen H, Bennett PH, Fuller JH, Lu M: Follow-up of the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes: General description and morbidity. Diabetologia 44:S3-S13, 2001 (suppl 2)

82. Lee ET, Lu M, Bennett PH, Keen H: Vascular disease in younger-onset diabetes: Comparison of European, Asian and American Indian cohorts of the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes. Diabetologia 44:S78-S81, 2001 (suppl 2)

83. Uchigata Y: Long-term outcome of type 2 diabetes in adolescence, in Silink M, Kida K, Rosenbloom AL (eds): Type 2 Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence: A Global Perspective. New York, NY, Dunitz, 2003, pp 187-210

84. Yokoyama H, Okudaira M, Otani T, et al: Existence of early-onset NIDDM Japanese demonstrating severe diabetic complications. Diabetes Care 20:844-847, 1997

85. Brown AF, Mangione CM, Saliba D, Sarkisian CA: Guidelines for improving the care of the older person with diabetes mellitus. J Am Geriatr Soc 51:S265-S280, 2003 (suppl)

86. Pettitt DJ, Knowler WC: Diabetes and obesity in the Pima Indians: A crossgenerational vicious cycle. J Obes Weight Regul 7:61-65, 1988 (Note: Reference link was unavailable at time of online publication)

87. Nelson RG, Morgenstern H, Bennett PH: Intrauterine diabetes exposure and the risk of renal disease in diabetic Pima Indians. Diabetes 47:1489-1493, 1998

88. Gregg EW, Beckles GL, Williamson DF, et al: Diabetes and physical disability among older U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 23:1272-1277, 2000

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91. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, Davis MD, DeMets DL: The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. III. Prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is 30 or more years. Arch Ophthalmol 102:527-532, 1984

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93. Kleinman JC, Donahue RP, Harris MI, Finucane FF, Madans JH, Brock DB: Mortality among diabetics in a national sample. Am J Epidemiol 128:389-401, 1988

94. Borch-Johnsen K, Andersen PK, Deckert T: The effect of proteinuria on relative mortality in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 28:590-596, 1985

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99. Tonelli M, Keech A, Shepherd J, et al: Effect of pravastatin in people with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 16:3748-3754, 2005

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