KDOQI (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative)

KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease


1. National Kidney Foundation: DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Anemia of Chronic Renal Failure. Am J Kidney Dis 30:S192-S240, 1997 (suppl 3)

2. National Kidney Foundation: KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease: Update 2000. Am J Kidney Dis 37:S182-S238, 2001 (suppl 1)

3. National Kidney Foundation: KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines on Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 43:S1-S290, 2004 (suppl 1)

4. National Kidney Foundation: KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 39:S1-S266, 2002 (suppl 1)

5. US Renal Data System: USRDS 2000 Annual Data Report. Bethesda, MD, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2000

6. National Kidney Foundation: KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Dyslipidemias in Patients With Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 41:S1-S91, 2003 (suppl 3)

7. National Kidney Foundation: KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bone Metabolism and Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 42:S1-S201, 2003 (suppl 3)

8. National Kidney Foundation: KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure. Am J Kidney Dis 35:S1-S140, 2000 (suppl 1)

9. National Kidney Foundation: KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease in Dialysis Patients. Am J Kidney Dis 45:S1-S153, 2005 (suppl 3)

10. Gilbertson DT, Liu J, Xue JL, et al: Projecting the number of patients with end-stage renal disease in the United States to the year 2015. J Am Soc Nephrol 16:3736-3741, 2005

11. Donnelly S: Why is erythropoietin made in the kidney? The kidney functions as a critmeter. Am J Kidney Dis 38:415-425, 2001

12. Metzen E, Ratcliffe PJ: HIF hydroxylation and cellular oxygen sensing. Biol Chem 385:223-230, 2004

13. Koury MJ, Ponka P: New insights into erythropoiesis: The roles of folate, vitamin B12, and iron. Annu Rev Nutr 24:105-131, 2004

14. De Maria R, Testa U, Luchetti L, et al: Apoptotic role of Fas/Fas ligand system in the regulation of erythropoiesis. Blood 93:796-803, 1999

15. Andrews NC: Anemia of inflammation: The cytokine-hepcidin link. J Clin Invest 113:1251-1253, 2004

16. Locatelli F, Aljama P, Barany P, et al: Revised European Best Practice Guidelines for the management of anaemia in patients with chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 19:Sii1-Sii47, 2004 (suppl 2)

17. Eschbach JW, Adamson JW: Anemia of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney Int 28:1-5, 1985

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19. McGonigle RJ, Wallin JD, Shadduck RK, Fisher JW: Erythropoietin deficiency and inhibition of erythropoiesis in renal insufficiency. Kidney Int 25:437-444, 1984

20. Fisher JW: Mechanism of the anemia of chronic renal failure. Nephron 25:106-111, 1980

21. Erslev AJ, Besarab A: The rate and control of baseline red cell production in hematologically stable patients with uremia. J Lab Clin Med 126:283-286, 1995

22. Besarab A, Levin A: Defining a renal anemia management period. Am J Kidney Dis 36:S13-S23, 2000. (suppl 1)

23. Chandra M, Miller ME, Garcia JF, Mossey RT, McVicar M: Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin levels in patients with polycystic kidney disease as compared with other hemodialysis patients. Nephron 39:26-29, 1985

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27. Astor BC, Muntner P, Levin A, Eustace JA, Coresh J: Association of kidney function with anemia: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Arch Intern Med 162:1401-1408, 2002

28. US Renal Data System: USRDS 2004 Annual Data Report. Bethesda, MD, The National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2004

29. McClellan W, Aronoff SL, Bolton WK, et al: The prevalence of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. Curr Med Res Opin 20:1501-1510, 2004

30. Levin A, Thompson CR, Ethier J, et al: Left ventricular mass index increase in early renal disease: Impact of decline in hemoglobin. Am J Kidney Dis 34:125-134, 1999

31. Obrador GT, Ruthazer R, Arora P, Kausz AT, Pereira BJ: Prevalence of and factors associated with suboptimal care before initiation of dialysis in the United States. J Am Soc Nephrol 10:1793-1800, 1999

32. Guralnik JM, Eisenstaedt RS, Ferrucci L, Klein HG, Woodman RC: Prevalence of anemia in persons 65 years and older in the United States: Evidence for a high rate of unexplained anemia. Blood 104:2263-2268, 2004

33. Ishimura E, Nishizawa Y, Okuno S, et al: Diabetes mellitus increases the severity of anemia in non-dialyzed patients with renal failure. J Nephrol 11:83-86, 1998

34. Bosman DR, Winkler AS, Marsden JT, Macdougall IC, Watkins PJ: Anemia with erythropoietin deficiency occurs early in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care 24:495-499, 2001

35. Thomas MC, MacIsaac RJ, Tsalamandris C, Power D, Jerums G: Unrecognized anemia in patients with diabetes: A cross-sectional survey. Diabetes Care 26:1164-1169, 2003

36. Thomas MC, MacIsaac RJ, Tsalamandris C, et al: The burden of anaemia in type 2 diabetes and the role of nephropathy: A cross-sectional audit. Nephrol Dial Transplant 19:1792-1797, 2004

37. El-Achkar TM, Ohmit SE, McCullough PA, et al: Higher prevalence of anemia with diabetes mellitus in moderate kidney insufficiency: The Kidney Early Evaluation Program. Kidney Int 67:1483-1488, 2005

38. Roger SD, McMahon LP, Clarkson A, et al: Effects of early and late intervention with epoetin alpha on left ventricular mass among patients with chronic kidney disease (stage 3 or 4): Results of a randomized clinical trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 15:148-156, 2004

39. Levin A, Djurdjev O, Thompson C, et al: Canadian randomized trial of hemoglobin maintenance to prevent or delay left ventricular mass growth in patients with CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 46:799-811, 2005

40. Hollowell JG, van Assendelft OW, Gunter EW, Lewis BG, Najjar M, Pfeiffer C: Hematological and iron-related analytes—Reference data for persons aged 1 year and over: United States, 1988-94. Vital Health Stat 11:1-156, 2005

41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Recommendations to prevent and control iron deficiency in the United States. MMWR Recomm Rep 47:1-29, 1998

42. World Health Organization: Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Assessment, Prevention and Control. A Guide for Programme Managers. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2001

43. Levin A: How should anaemia be managed in pre-dialysis patients? Nephrol Dial Transplant 14:S66-S74, 1999 (suppl 2)

44. Xue JL, St Peter WL, Ebben JP, Everson SE, Collins AJ: Anemia treatment in the pre-ESRD period and associated mortality in elderly patients. Am J Kidney Dis 40:1153-1161, 2002

45. Parfrey PS, Foley RN, Harnett JD, Kent GM, Murray DC, Barre PE: Outcome and risk factors for left ventricular disorders in chronic uraemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:1277-1285, 1996

46. Levin A, Foley RN: Cardiovascular disease in chronic renal insufficiency. Am J Kidney Dis 36:S24-S30, 2000 (suppl 1)

47. Kausz AT, Obrador GT, Pereira BJ: Anemia management in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Am J Kidney Dis 36:S39-S51, 2000 (suppl 1)

48. Locatelli F, Conte F, Marcelli D: The impact of haematocrit levels and erythropoietin treatment on overall and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity—The experience of the Lombardy Dialysis Registry. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:1642-1644, 1998

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50. Ritz E, Eisenhardt A: Early epoetin treatment in patients with renal insufficiency. Nephrol Dial Transplant 15:S40-S44, 2000 (suppl 3)

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56. Berkahn L, Keating A: Hematopoiesis in the elderly. Hematology 9:159-163, 2004

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61. Cresanta JL, Croft JB, Webber LS, Nicklas TA, Berenson GS: Racial difference in hemoglobin concentration of young adults. Prev Med 16:659-669, 1987

62. Pan WH, Habicht JP: The non-iron-deficiency-related difference in hemoglobin concentration distribution between blacks and whites and between men and women. Am J Epidemiol 134:1410-1416, 1991

63. Jackson RT: Separate hemoglobin standards for blacks and whites: A critical review of the case for separate and unequal hemoglobin standards. Med Hypotheses 32:181-189, 1990

64. Johnson-Spear MA, Yip R: Hemoglobin difference between black and white women with comparable iron status: Justification for race-specific anemia criteria. Am J Clin Nutr 60:117-121, 1994

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66. Taralov Z, Koumtchev E, Lyutakova Z: Erythrocyte ferritin levels in chronic renal failure patients. Folia Med (Plovdiv) 40:65-70, 1998

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80. Brod J, Hornych A: Effect of correction of anemia on the glomerular filtration rate in chronic renal failure. Isr J Med Sci 3:53-59, 1967

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83. Hayashi T, Suzuki A, Shoji T, et al: Cardiovascular effect of normalizing the hematocrit level during erythropoietin therapy in predialysis patients with chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 35:250-256, 2000

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92. Movilli E, Pertica N, Camerini C, et al: Predialysis versus postdialysis hematocrit evaluation during erythropoietin therapy. Am J Kidney Dis 39:850-853, 2002

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98. Fernandez-Rodriguez AM, Guindeo-Casasus MC, Molero-Labarta T, et al: Diagnosis of iron deficiency in chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 34:508-513, 1999

99. Kalantar-Zadeh K, Hoffken B, Wunsch H, Fink H, Kleiner M, Luft FC: Diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia in renal failure patients during the post-erythropoietin era. Am J Kidney Dis 26:292-299, 1995

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