KDOQI (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative)

NKF KDOQI GUIDELINES

Executive Summaries | Anemia | Hemodialysis | Peritoneal Dialysis
Vascular Access | Nutrition | CKD 2002 | Dyslipidemias | History of KDOQI

 

KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Managing Dyslipidemias in Chronic Kidney Disease


REFERENCES 1.  Collins AJ, Roberts TL, St Peter WL, Chen SC, Ebben J, Constantini E. United States Renal Data System assessment of the impact of the National Kidney Foundation-Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. Am J Kidney Dis, 2002, 39;889-891.

2.  National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis, 2002, 39;S1-S266.

3.  Expert Panel on Detection Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA, 2001, 285;2486-2497.

4.  Levey AS, Beto JA, Coronado BE, et al. Controlling the epidemic of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease: What do we know? What do we need to learn? Where do we go from here? National Kidney Foundation Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Am J Kidney Dis, 1998, 32;853-906.

5.  United States Renal Data System. USRDS 2000 Annual Data Report: Atlas of End-Stage Renal Diseas in the United States (ed 12th Annual Report), Division of Kidney, Urologic, and Hematological Diseases, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 2000.

6.  National Cholesterol Education Program. Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics, 1992, 89;525-584.

7.  Block GA, Hulbert-Shearon TE, Levin NW, Port FK. Association of serum phosphorus and calcium x phosphate product with mortality risk in chronic hemodialysis patients: A national study. Am J Kidney Dis, 1998, 31;607-617.

8.  Ganesh SK, Stack AG, Levin NW, Hulbert-Shearon T, Port FK. Association of elevated serum PO(4), Ca x PO(4) product, and parathyroid hormone with cardiac mortality risk in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol, 2001, 12;2131-2138.

9.  Massy ZA, Chadefaux-Vekemans B, Chevalier A, et al. Hyperhomocysteinaemia: A significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease in renal transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1994, 9;1103-1108.

10.  Bostom AG, Shemin D, Lapane KL, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis: A case-control study. Atherosclerosis, 1995, 114;93-103.

11.  Bostom AG, Shemin D, Verhoef P, et al. Elevated fasting total plasma homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease outcomes in maintenance dialysis patients. A prospective study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 1997, 17;2554-2558.

12.  Jungers P, Chauveau P, Bandin O, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with atherosclerotic occlusive arterial accidents in predialysis chronic renal failure patients. Miner Electrolyte Metab, 1997, 23;170-173.

13.  Moustapha A, Naso A, Nahlawi M, et al. Prospective study of hyperhomocysteinemia as an adverse cardiovascular risk factor in end-stage renal disease. Circulation, 1998, 97;138-141.

14.  Kunz K, Petitjean P, Lisri M, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and endothelial dysfunction in chronic haemodialysis patients: Is homocyst(e)ine the missing link?. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1999, 14;1934-1942.

15.  Ducloux D, Motte G, Challier B, Gibey R, Chalopin JM. Serum total homocysteine and cardiovascular disease occurrence in chronic, stable renal transplant recipients: A prospective study. J Am Soc Nephrol, 2000, 11;134-137.

16.  Mallamaci F, Zoccali C, Tripepi G, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia predicts cardiovascular oucomes in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int, 2002, 61;609-614.

17.  Stenvinkel P, Heimburger O, Paultre F, et al. Strong association between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int, 1999, 55;1899-1911.

18.  Zimmermann J, Herrlinger S, Pruy A, Metzger T, Wanner C. Inflammation enhances cardiovascular risk and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int, 1999, 55;648-658.

19.  Stenvinkel P, Lindholm B, Heimburger M, Heimburger O. Elevated serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules predict death in pre-dialysis patients: Association with malnutrition, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2000, 15;1624-1630.

20.  Yeun JY, Levine RA, Mantadilok V, Kaysen GA. C-reactive protein predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis, 2000, 35;469-476.

21.  Haubitz M, Brunkhorst R. C-reactive protein and chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection—Long-term predictors for cardiovascular disease and survival in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2001, 16;809-815.

22.  Jungers P, Massy ZA, Nguyen Khoa T, et al. Incidence and risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular accidents in predialysis chronic renal failure patients: A prospective study. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1997, 12;2597-2602.

23.  Landray MJ, Thambyrajah J, McGlynn FJ, et al. Epidemiological evaluation of known and suspected cardiovascular risk factors in chronic renal impairment. Am J Kidney Dis, 2001, 38;537-546.

24.  Tonelli M, Bohm C, Pandeya S, Gill J, Levin A, Kiberd BA. Cardiac risk factors and the use of cardioprotective medications in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Am J Kidney Dis, 2001, 37;484-489.

25.  Levin A, Djurdjev O, Barrett B, et al. Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease: Getting to the heart of the matter. Am J Kidney Dis, 2001, 38;1398-1407.

26.  The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med, 1997, 157;2413-2446.

27.  The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus: American Diabetes Association clinical practice recommendations 2002. Diabetes Care, 2002, 25;S1-S147.

28.  Mosca L, Collins P, Herrington DM, et al. Hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease: A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2001, 104;499-503.

29.  US Preventive Services Task Force. Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events: Recommendation and rationale. Ann Intern Med, 2002, 136;157-160.

30.  Krauss RM, Eckel RH, Howard B, et al. AHA Dietary Guidelines: Revision 2000: A satement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2000, 102;2284-2299.

31.  Smith SC Jr, Blair SN, Bonow RO, et al. AHA/ACC Scientific Statement: AHA/ACC guidelines for preventing heart attack and death in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: 2001 update: A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology. Circulation, 2001, 104;1577-1579.

32.  Goldstein LB, Adams R, Becker K, et al. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2001, 103;163-182.

33.  A clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence: A US Public Health Service report. The Tobacco Use and Dependence Clinical Practice Guideline Panel, Staff, and Consortium Representatives. JAMA, 2000, 283;3244-3254.

34.  MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 2002, 360;7-22.

35.  Davis BR, Cutler JA, Gordon DJ, et al. Rationale and design for the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). ALLHAT Research Group. Am J Hypertens, 1996, 9;342-360.

36.  MacMahon M, Kirkpatrick C, Cummings CE, et al. A pilot study with simvastatin and folic acid/vitamin B12 in preparation for the Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and Homocysteine (SEARCH). Nutr Metabol Cardiovasc Dis, 2000, 10;195-203.

37.  Brown WV. Cholesterol lowering in atherosclerosis. Am J Cardiol, 2000, 86;29H-32H.

38.  Gotto AM. Ongoing clinical trials of statins. Am J Cardiol, 2001, 88;36F-40F.

39.  Isaacsohn JL, Davidson MH, Hunninghake D, Singer R, McLain R, Black DM. Aggressive Lipid-Lowering Initiative Abates New Cardiac Events (ALLIANCE)-rationale and design of atorvastatin versus usual care in hypercholesterolemic patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol, 2000, 86;250-252.

40.  Cannon CP, McCabe CH, Belder R, Breen J, Braunwald E. Design of the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy (PROVE IT)-TIMI 22 trial. Am J Cardiol, 2002, 89;860-861.

41.  Shepherd J, Blauw GJ, Murphy MB, et al. The design of a prospective study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). Am J Cardiol, 1999, 84;1192-1197.

42.  Steiner G. Lipid intervention trials in diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2000, 23;B49-B53.

43.  Holdaas H, Fellström B, Holme I, et al. Effects of fluvastatin on cardiac events in renal transplant patients: ALERT (Assessment of Lescol®in Renal Transplantation) study design and baseline data. J Cardiovasc Risk, 2001, 8;63-71.

44.  Wanner C, Krane V, Ruf G, Marz W, Ritz E. Rationale and design of a trial improving outcome of type 2 diabetics on hemodialysis. Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse Studie Investigators. Kidney Int Suppl, 1999, 71;S222-S226.

45.  Diercks GF, Janssen WM, van Boven AJ, et al. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of a trial of prevention of cardiovascular and renal disease with fosinopril and pravastatin in nonhypertensive, nonhypercholesterolemic subjects with microalbuminuria (the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENdstage Disease Intervention Trial [PREVEND IT]). Am J Cardiol, 2000, 86;635-638.

46.  LaRosa JC, He J, Vupputuri S. Effect of statins on risk of coronary disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA, 1999, 282;2340-2346.

47.  Sacks FM, Tonkin AM, Shepherd J, et al. Effect of pravastatin on coronary disease events in subgroups defined by coronary risk factors: The Prospective Pravastatin Pooling Project. Circulation, 2000, 102;1900.

48.  Pyorala K, Pedersen TR, Kjekshus J, Faergeman O, Olsson AG, Thorgeirsson G. Cholesterol lowering with simvastatin improves prognosis of diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. A subgroup analysis of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Diabetes Care, 1997, 20;614-620.

49.  The Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Group. Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. The Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Group. N Engl J Med, 1998, 339;1349-1357.

50.  Goldberg RB, Mellies MJ, Sacks FM, et al. Cardiovascular events and their reduction with pravastatin in diabetic and glucose-intolerant myocardial infarction survivors with average cholesterol levels: Subgroup analyses in the cholesterol and recurrent events (CARE) trial. The Care Investigators. Circulation, 1998, 98;2513-2519.

51.  Schwartz GG, Olsson AG, Ezekowitz MD, et al. Effects of atorvastatin on early recurrent ischemic events in acute coronary syndromes: The MIRACL study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 2001, 285;1711-1718.

52.  Goldbourt U, Behar S, Reicher-Reiss H, et al. Rationale and design of a secondary prevention trial of increasing serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reducing triglycerides in patients with clinically manifest atherosclerotic heart disease (the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention Trial). Am J Cardiol, 1993, 71;909-915.

53.  Secondary prevention by raising HDL cholesterol and reducing triglycerides in patients with coronary artery disease: The Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) study. Circulation, 2000, 102;21-27.

54.  McCormick LS, Black DM, Waters D, Brown WV, Pitt B. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of a trial comparing aggressive lipid lowering with Atorvastatin Versus Revascularization Treatments (AVERT). Am J Cardiol, 1997, 80;1130-1133.

55.  Design features and baseline characteristics of the LIPID (Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease) Study: A randomized trial in patients with previous acute myocardial infarction and/or unstable angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol, 1995, 76;474-479.

56.  The Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Group. Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. The Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Group. N Engl J Med, 1998, 339;1349-1357.

57.  Downs JR, Beere PA, Whitney E, et al. Design & rationale of the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS). Am J Cardiol, 1997, 80;287-293.

58.  Downs JR, Clearfield M, Weis S, et al. Primary prevention of acute coronary events with lovastatin in men and women with average cholesterol levels: Results of AFCAPS/TexCAPS. Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study. JAMA, 1998, 279;1615-1622.

59.  Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moyé L, et al. Rationale and design of a secondary prevention trial of lowering normal plasma cholesterol levels after acute myocardial infarction: The Cholesterol and Recurrent Events trial (CARE). Am J Cardiol, 1991, 68;1436-1446.

60.  Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA, et al. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial investigators. N Engl J Med, 1996, 335;1001-1009.

61.  West MS, Herd JA, Ballantyne CM, et al. The Lipoprotein and Coronary Atherosclerosis Study (LCAS): Design, methods, and baseline data of a trial of fluvastatin in patients without severe hypercholesterolemia. Control Clin Trials, 1996, 17;550-583.

62.  The West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. A coronary primary prevention study of Scottish men aged 45-64 years: Trial design. The West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. J Clin Epidemiol, 1992, 45;849-860.

63.  Shepherd J, Cobbe SM, Ford I, et al. Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med, 1995, 333;1301-1307.

64.  Jukema JW, Bruschke AV, van Boven AJ, et al. Effects of lipid lowering by pravastatin on progression and regression of coronary artery disease in symptomatic men with normal to moderately elevated serum cholesterol levels. The Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study (REGRESS). Circulation, 1995, 91;2528-2540.

65.  Pitt B, Mancini GB, Ellis SG, Rosman HS, Park JS, McGovern ME. Pravastatin limitation of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries (PLAC I): Reduction in atherosclerosis progression and clinical events PLAC I investigation. J Am Coll Cardiol, 1995, 26;1133-1139.

66.  Design and baseline results of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study of patients with stable angina and/or previous myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol, 1993, 71;393-400.

67.  Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet, 1994, 344;1383-1389.

68.  Waters D, Higginson L, Gladstone P, et al. Effects of monotherapy with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis as assessed by serial quantitative arteriography. The Canadian Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial. Circulation, 1994, 89;959-968.

69.  Bradford RH, Shear CL, Chremos AN, et al. Expanded clinical evaluation of lovastatin (EXCEL) study: Design and patient characteristics of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol, 1990, 66;44B-55B.

70.  Bradford RH, Shear CL, Chremos AN, et al. Expanded Clinical Evaluation of Lovastatin (EXCEL) study results: Two-year efficacy and safety follow-up. Am J Cardiol, 1994, 74;667-673.

71.  Mänttäri M, Elo O, Frick MH, et al. The Helsinki Heart Study: Basic design and randomization procedure. Eur Heart J, 1987, 8;1-29.

72.  Frick MH, Elo O, Haapa K, et al. Helsinki heart study: Primary-prevention trial with gemfibrozil in middle-aged men with dyslipidemia. N Engl J Med, 1987, 317;1237-1245.

73.  Mänttäri M, Tiula E, Alikoski T, Manninen V. Effects of hypertension and dyslipidemia on the decline in renal function. Hypertension, 1995, 26;670-675.

74.  Brown G, Albers JJ, Fisher LD, et al. Regression of coronary artery disease as a result of intensive lipid-lowering therapy in men with high levels of apolipoprotein B. N Engl J Med, 1990, 323;1289-1298.

75.  Rubins HB, Robins SJ, Iwane MK, et al. Rationale and design of the Department of Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Intervention Trial (HIT) for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease in men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and desirable low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Cardiol, 1993, 71;45-52.

76.  Blankenhorn DH, Azen SP, Kramsch DM, et al. Coronary angiographic changes with lovastatin therapy. The Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study (MARS). The MARS Research Group. Ann Intern Med, 1993, 119;969-976.

77.  Effect of simvastatin on coronary atheroma: The Multicentre Anti-Atheroma Study (MAAS). Lancet, 1994, 344;633-638.

78.  Haskell WL, Alderman EL, Fair JM, et al. Effects of intensive multiple risk factor reduction on coronary atherosclerosis and clinical cardiac events in men and women with coronary artery disease. The Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project (SCRIP). Circulation, 1994, 89;975-990.

79.  The effect of aggressive lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and low-dose anticoagulation on obstructive changes in saphenous-vein coronary-artery bypass grafts. The Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med, 1997, 336;153-162.

80.  Bestehorn HP, Rensing UF, Roskamm H, et al. The effect of simvastatin on progression of coronary artery disease. The Multicenter coronary Intervention Study (CIS). Eur Heart J, 1997, 18;226-234.

81.  Frick MH, Syvanne M, Nieminen MS, et al. Prevention of the angiographic progression of coronary and vein-graft atherosclerosis by gemfibrozil after coronary bypass surgery in men with low levels of HDL cholesterol. Lopid Coronary Angiography Trial (LOCAT) Study Group. Circulation, 1997, 96;2137-2143.

82.  Effect of fenofibrate on progression of coronary-artery disease in type 2 diabetes: The Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study, a randomised study. Lancet, 2001, 357;905-910.

83.  Albert MA, Staggers J, Chew P, Ridker PM. The pravastatin inflammation CRP evaluation (PRINCE): Rationale and design. Am Heart J, 2001, 141;893-898.

84.  Seliger SL, Weiss NS, Gillen DL, et al. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are associated with reduced mortality in ESRD patients. Kidney Int, 2002, 61;297-304.

85.  Lowrie EG, Lew NL. Death risk in hemodialysis patients: The predictive value of commonly measured variables and an evaluation of death rate differences between facilities. Am J Kidney Dis, 1990, 15;458-482.

86.  Lowrie EG, Lew NL. Commonly measured laboratory variables in hemodialysis patients: Relationships among them and to death risk. Semin Nephrol, 1992, 12;276-283.

87.  Iseki K, Yamazato M, Tozawa M, Takishita S. Hypocholesterolemia is a significant predictor of death in a cohort of chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int, 2002, 61;1887-1893.

88.  Bologa RM, Levine DM, Parker TS, et al. Interleukin-6 predicts hypoalbuminemia, hypocholesterolemia, and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis, 1998, 32;107-114.

89.  Cheung AK, Sarnak MJ, Yan G, et al. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int, 2000, 58;353-362.

90.  Kronenberg F, Neyer U, Lhotta K, et al. The low molecular weight apo(a) phenotype is an independent predictor for coronary artery disease in hemodialysis patients: A prospective follow-up. J Am Soc Nephrol, 1999, 10;1027-1036.

91.  Cressman MD, Heyka RJ, Paganini EP, O’Neil J, Skibinski CI, Hoff HF. Lipoprotein(a) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. Circulation, 1992, 86;475-482.

92.  Stack AG, Bloembergen WE. Prevalence and clinical correlates of coronary artery disease among new dialysis patients in the United States: A cross-sectional study. J Am Soc Nephrol, 2001, 12;1516-1523.

93.  Koda Y, Nishi S, Suzuki M, Hirasawa Y. Lipoprotein(a) is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality of hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int Suppl, 1999, 71;S251-S253.

94.  Degoulet P, Legrain M, Rëach I, et al. Mortality risk factors in patients treated by chronic hemodialysis. Report of the Diaphane collaborative study. Nephron, 1982, 31;103-110.

95.  Iseki K, Uehara H, Nishime K, et al. Impact of the initial levels of laboratory variables on survival in chronic dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis, 1996, 28;541-548.

96.  Goldwasser P, Michel MA, Collier J, et al. Prealbumin and lipoprotein(a) in hemodialysis: Relationships with patient and vascular access survival. Am J Kidney Dis, 1993, 22;215-225.

97.  Kimura G, Tomita J, Nakamura S, Uzu T, Inenaga T. Interaction between hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in survival of hemodialyzed patients. Am J Hypertens, 1996, 9;1006-1012.

98.  Fujisawa M, Haramaki R, Miyazaki H, Imaizumi T, Okuda S. Role of lipoprotein (a) and TGF-beta 1 in atherosclerosis of hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol, 2000, 11;1889-1895.

99.  Webb AT, Brown EA. Prevalence of symptomatic arterial disease and risk factors for its development in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int, 1993, 13;S406-S408.

100.  Milionis HJ, Elisaf MS, Tselepis A, Bairaktari E, Karabina SA, Siamopoulos KC. Apolipoprotein(a) phenotypes and lipoprotein(a) concentrations in patients with renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis, 1999, 33;1100-1106.

101.  Kimak E, Solski J, Janicka L, Ksaziek A, Janicki K. Concentration of Lp(a) and other apolipoproteins in predialysis, hemodialysis, chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and post-transplant patients. Clin Chem Lab Med, 2000, 38;421-425.

102.  Maggi E, Bellazzi R, Falaschi F, et al. Enhanced LDL oxidation in uremic patients: An additional mechanism for accelerated atherosclerosis?. Kidney Int, 1994, 45;876-883.

103.  Maggi E, Bellazzi R, Gazo A, Seccia M, Bellomo G. Autoantibodies against oxidatively-modified LDL in uremic patients undergoing dialysis. Kidney Int, 1994, 46;869-876.

104.  Koniger M, Quaschning T, Wanner C, Schollmeyer P, Kramer-Guth A. Abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int Suppl, 1999, 71;S248-S250.

105.  Ziouzenkova O, Asatryan L, Akmal M, et al. Oxidative cross-linking of ApoB100 and hemoglobin results in low density lipoprotein modification in blood. Relevance to atherogenesis caused by hemodialysis. J Biol Chem, 1999, 274;18916-18924.

106.  O’Byrne D, Devaraj S, Islam KN, et al. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, soluble cell adhesion molecules, and autoantibodies to oxidized-LDL in chronic renal failure patients on dialysis therapy. Metab Clin Exp, 2001, 50;207-215.

107.  Boaz M, Smetana S, Weinstein T, et al. Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): Randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 2000, 356;1213-1218.

108.  Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, Kelly F, Cheeseman K, Mitchinson MJ. Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet, 1996, 347;781-786.

109.  Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Ripatti S, et al. Randomised trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with previous myocardial infraction. Lancet, 1997, 349;1715-1720.

110.  Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: Results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico. Lancet, 1999, 354;447-455.

111.  Leppala JM, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, et al. Controlled trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on stroke incidence and mortality in male smokers. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2000, 20;230-235.

112.  Yusuf S, Dagenais G, Pogue J, Bosch J, Sleight P. Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med, 2000, 342;154-160.

113.  Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project. Low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in people at cardiovascular risk. A randomised trial in general practice. Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project. Lancet, 2001, 357;89-95.

114.  Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med, 2001, 345;1583-1592.

115.  Collins R, Peto R, Armitage J. The MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study: Preliminary results. Int J Clin Pract, 2002, 56;53-56.

116.  Nestel PJ, Fidge NH, Tan MH. Increased lipoprotein-remnant formation in chronic renal failure. N Engl J Med, 1982, 307;329-333.

117.  Ron D, Oren I, Aviram M, Better OS, Brook JG. Accumulation of lipoprotein remnants in patients with chronic renal failure. Atherosclerosis, 1983, 46;67-75.

118.  Senti M, Romero R, Pedro-Botet J, Pelegri A, Nogues X, Rubies-Prat J. Lipoprotein abnormalities in hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic men on hemodialysis with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int, 1992, 41;1394-1399.

119.  Cheung AK, Wu LL, Kablitz C, Leypoldt JK. Atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis, 1993, 22;271-276.

120.  Shoji T, Nishizawa Y, Kawagishi T, et al. Intermediate-density lipoprotein as an independent risk factor for aortic atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol, 1998, 9;1277-1284.

121.  Oi K, Hirano T, Sakai S, Kawaguchi Y, Hosoya T. Role of hepatic lipase in intermediate-density lipoprotein and small, dense low-density lipoprotein formation in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int Suppl, 1999, 71;S227-S228.

122.  Hirany S, O’Byrne D, Devaraj S, Jialal I. Remnant-like particle-cholesterol concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease. Clin Chem, 2000, 46;667-672.

123.  Deighan CJ, Caslake MJ, McConnell M, Boulton-Jones JM, Packard CJ. Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype in end-stage renal failure: Origin and extent of small dense low-density lipoprotein formation. Am J Kidney Dis, 2000, 35;852-862.

124.  Olivares J, Cruz C, Gas JM, et al. Evolution of lipid profiles in long-term peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial, 1992, 8;373-375.

125.  Ghanem H, van den Dorpel MA, Weimar W, Man in ’t Veld AJ, El-kannishy MH, Jansen H. Increased low density lipoprotein oxidation in stable kidney transplant recipients. Kidney Int, 1996, 49;488-493.

126.  van den Dorpel MA, Ghanem H, Rischen-Vos J, Man in ’t Veld AJ, Jansen H, Weimar W. Conversion from cyclosporine A to azathioprine treatment improves LDL oxidation in kidney transplant recipients. Kidney Int, 1997, 51;1608-1612.

127.  Quaschning T, Mainka T, Nauck M, Rump LC, Wanner C, Kramer-Guth A. Immunosuppression enhances atherogenicity of lipid profile after transplantation. Kidney Int Suppl, 1999, 71;S235-S237.

128.  Kasiske BL, Guijarro C, Massy ZA, Wiederkehr MR, Ma JZ. Cardiovascular disease after renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol, 1996, 7;158-165.

129.  Aker S, Ivens K, Grabensee B, Heering P. Cardiovascular risk factors and diseases after renal transplantation. Int Urol Nephrol, 1998, 30;777-788.

130.  Aakhus S, Dahl K, Widerøe TE. Cardiovascular morbidity and risk factors in renal transplant patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1999, 14;648-654.

131.  Kasiske BL, Chakkera H, Roel J. Explained and unexplained ischemic heart disease risk after renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol, 2000, 11;1735-1743.

132.  Ong CS, Pollock CA, Caterson RJ, Mahony JF, Waugh DA, Ibels LS. Hyperlipidemia in renal transplant recipients: Natural history and response to treatment. Medicine, 1994, 73;215-223.

133.  Barbagallo CM, Pinto A, Gallo S, et al. Carotid atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients: Relationships with cardiovascular risk factors and plasma lipoproteins. Transplantation, 1999, 67;366-371.

134.  Roodnat JI, Mulder PG, Zietse R, et al. Cholesterol as an independent predictor of outcome after renal transplantation. Transplantation, 2000, 69;1704-1710.

135.  Massy ZA, Mamzer-Bruneel MF, Chevalier A, et al. Carotid atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1998, 13;1792-1798.

136.  Biesenbach G, Margreiter R, Konigsrainer A, et al. Comparison of progression of macrovascular diseases after kidney or pancreas and kidney transplantation in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease. Diabetologia, 2000, 43;231-234.

137.  Scanferla F, Toffoletto PP, Roncali D, Bazzato G. Associated effect of hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase + angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors on the progression of renal failure in hypertensive subjects. Am J Hypertens, 1991, 4;868.

138.  Hommel E, Andersen P, Gall M-A, et al. Plasma lipoproteins and renal function during simvastatin treatment in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetologia, 1992, 35;447-451.

139.  Nielsen S, Schmitz O, Møller N, et al. Renal function and insulin sensitivity during simvastatin treatment in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. Diabetologia, 1993, 36;1079-1086.

140.  Thomas ME, Harris KPG, Ramaswamy C, et al. Simvastatin therapy for hypercholesterolemic patients with nephrotic syndrome or significant proteinuria. Kidney Int, 1993, 44;1124-1129.

141.  Aranda Arcas JL, Sanchez R, Guijarro C, et al. [Effect of pravastatin on hypercholesterolemia associated with proteinuria]. An Med Interna, 1994, 11;523-527.

142.  Lam KSL, Cheng IKP, Janus ED, Pang RWC. Cholesterol-lowering therapy may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetologia, 1995, 38;604-609.

143.  Rayner BL, Byrne MJ, van Zyl Smit R. A prospective clinical trial comparing the treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy and nephrotic syndrome with simvastatin and diet, versus diet alone. Clin Nephrol, 1996, 46;219-224.

144.  Smulders YM, Van Eeden AE, Stehouwer CDA, Weijers RNM, Slaats EH, Silberbusch J. Can reduction in hypertriglyceridemia slow progression of microalbuminuria in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus?. Eur J Clin Invest, 1997, 27;997-1002.

145.  Tonolo G, Ciccarese M, Brizzi P, et al. Reduction of albumin excretion rate in normotensive microalbumiuric type 2 diabetic pateints during long-term simvastatin treatment. Diabetes Care, 1997, 20;1891-1895.

146.  Olbricht CJ, Wanner C, Thiery J, Basten A, the Simvastatin in Nephrotic Syndrome Study Group. Simvastatin in nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Int Suppl, 1999, 71;S113-S116.

147.  Nishimura M, Sasaki T, Oishi A, et al. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and probucol suppress time-dependent increase in urinary type IV collagen excretion of NIDDM with early nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol, 1999, 10;131A.

148.  Buemi M, Allegra A, Corica F, et al. Effect of fluvastatin on proteinuria in patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2000, 67;427-431.

149.  Fried LF, Orchard TJ, Kasiske BL. The effect of lipid reduction on renal disease progression: A meta-analysis. Kidney Int, 2001, 59;260-269.

150.  Walker WG. Hypertension-related renal injury: A major contributor to end-stage renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis, 1993, 22;164-173.

151.  Hunsicker LG, Adler S, Caggiula A, et al. Predictors of the progression of renal disease in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Kidney Int, 1997, 51;1908-1919.

152.  Ravid M, Brosh D, Ravid-Safran D, Levy Z, Rachmani R. Main risk factors for nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus are plasma cholesterol levels, mean blood pressure, and hyperglycemia. Arch Intern Med, 1998, 158;998-1004.

153.  Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, Cruickshank KJ, Brazy PC. The 10-year incidence of renal insufficiency in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 1999, 22;743-751.

154.  Hovind P, Rossing P, Tarnow L, Smidt UM, Parving H-H. Progression of diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int, 1997, 59;702-709.

155.  Massy ZA, Khoa TN, Lacour B, Descamps-Latscha B, Man NK, Jungers P. Dyslipidaemia and the progression of renal disease in chronic renal failure patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1999, 14;2392-2397.

156.  Samuelsson O, Attman PO, Knight-Gibson C, et al. Plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) do not reflect progression of human chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1996, 11;2237-2243.

157.  Yokoyama H, Tomonaga O, Hirayama M, et al. Predictors of the progression of diabetic nephropathy and the beneficial effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in NIDDM patients. Diabetologia, 1997, 40;405-411.

158.  Samuelsson O, Mulec H, Knight-Gibson C, et al. Lipoprotein abnormalities are associated with increased rate of progression of human chronic renal insufficiency. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1997, 12;1908-1915.

159.  Nielsen S, Schmitz A, Rehling M, Mogensen CE. The clinical course of renal function in NIDDM patients with normo- and microalbuminuria. J Intern Med, 1997, 241;133-141.

160.  Gall M-A, Nielsen FS, Smidt UM, Parving H-H. The course of kidney function in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. Diabetologia, 1993, 36;1071-1078.

161.  Locatelli F, Alberti D, Graziani G, Buccianti G, Redaelli B. Giangrande: Prospective, randomised, multicentre trial of effect of protein restriction on progression of chronic renal insufficiency. Northern Italian Cooperative Study Group. Lancet, 1991, 337;1299-1304.

162.  Dillon JJ. The quantitative relationship between treated blood pressure and progression of diabetic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis, 1993, 22;798-802.

163.  Biesenbach G, Janko O, Zazgornik J. Similar rate of progression in the predialysis phase in type I and type II diabetes mellitus. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1994, 9;1097-1102.

164.  Toth T, Takebayashi S. Factors contributing to the outcome in 100 adult patients with idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis. Int Urol Nephrol, 1994, 26;93-106.

165.  Sent M, Romero R, Pedro-Botet J, Pelegr A, Nogués X, Rubiés-Prat J. Lipoprotein abnormalities in hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic men on hemodialysis with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int, 1992, 41;1394-1399.

166.  Hernandez E, Praga M, Alamo C, et al. Lipoprotein(a) and vascular access survival in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Nephron, 1996, 72;145-149.

167.  Avram MM, Antignani A, Goldwasser P, et al. Lipids in diabetic and nondiabetic hemodialysis and CAPD patients. ASAIO Trans, 1988, 34;314-316.

168.  Parra HJ, Cachera C, Equagoo K, Dracon M, Fruchart JC, Tacquet A. Quantitative abnormalities of lipoprotein particles in chronic hemodialysis patients. Adv Exp Med Biol, 1988, 243;283-287.

169.  Aakhus S, Dahl K, Widerøe TE. Hyperlipidaemia in renal transplant patients. J Intern Med, 1996, 239;407-415.

170.  Gonyea JE, Anderson CF. Weight change and serum lipoproteins in recipients of renal allografts. Mayo Clin Proc, 1992, 67;653-657.

171.  Brown JH, Murphy BG, Douglas AF, et al. Influence of immunosuppressive therapy on lipoprotein(a) and other lipoproteins following renal transplantation. Nephron, 1997, 75;277-282.

172.  Moore R, Thomas D, Morgan E, et al. Abnormal lipid and lipoprotein profiles following renal transplantation. Transplant Proc, 1993, 25;1060-1061.

173.  Querfeld U, LeBoeuf RC, Salusky IB, Nelson P, Laidlaw S, Fine RN. Lipoproteins in children treated with continuous peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Res, 1991, 29;155-159.

174.  Querfeld U, Lang M, Friedrich JB, Kohl B, Fiehn W, Scharer K. Lipoprotein(a) serum levels and apolipoprotein(a) phenotypes in children with chronic renal disease. Pediatr Res, 1993, 34;772-776.

175.  Scolnik D, Balfe JW. Initial hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia persist during chronic peritoneal dialysis in children. Perit Dial Int, 1993, 13;136-139.

176.  Querfeld U, Salusky IB, Nelson P, Foley J, Fine RN. Hyperlipidemia in pediatric patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol, 1988, 2;447-452.

177.  Broyer M, Niaudet P, Champion G, Jean G, Chopin N, Czernichow P. Nutritional and metabolic studies in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int Suppl, 1983, 15;S106-S110.

178.  Bakkaloglu SA, Ekim M, Tumer N, Soylu K. The effect of CAPD on the lipid profile of pediatric patients. Perit Dial Int, 2000, 20;568-571.

179.  Silverstein DM, Palmer J, Polinsky MS, Braas C, Conley SB, Baluarte HJ. Risk factors for hyperlipidemia in long-term pediatric renal transplant recipients. Pediatr Nephrol, 2000, 14;105-110.

180.  Goldstein S, Duhamel G, Laudat MH, et al. Plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins AI, AII, and B in renal transplanted children: What risk for accelerated atherosclerosis?. Nephron, 1984, 38;87-92.

181.  Van Gool S, Van Damme-Lombaerts R, Cobbaert C, Proesmans W, Eggermont E. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities in children on hemodialysis and after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc, 1991, 23;1375-1377.

182.  Milliner DS, Morgenstern BZ, Murphy M, Gonyea J, Sterioff S. Lipid levels following renal transplantation in pediatric recipients. Transplant Proc, 1994, 26;112-114.

183.  Singh A, Tejani C, Benfield M, Tejani A. Sequential analysis of the lipid profile of children post-renal transplantation. Pediatr Transplant, 1998, 2;216-223.

184.  Foley RN, Parfrey PS, Sarnak MJ. Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis, 1998, 32;S112-S119.

185.  Parekh RS, Carroll CE, Wolfe RA, Port FK. Cardiovascular mortality in children and young adults with end-stage kidney disease. J Pediatr, 2002, 141;191-197.

186.  Strong JP, Malcom GT, McMahan CA, et al. Prevalence and extent of atherosclerosis in adolescents and young adults: implications for prevention from the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth Study. JAMA, 1999, 281;727-735.

187.  Antikainen M, Sariola H, Rapola J, Taskinen M-R, Holthöfer H, Holmberg C. Pathology of renal arteries of dyslipidemic children with congenital nephrosis. APMIS, 1994, 102;129-134.

188.  Nayir A, Bilge I, Kilicaslan I, Ander H, Emre S, Sirin A. Arterial changes in paediatric haemodialysis patients undergoing renal transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2001, 16;2041-2047.

189.  Olson RE. Atherogenesis in children: Implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Adv Pediatr, 2000, 47;55-78.

190.  National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. The Lipid Research Clinics Population Studies Data Book: Volume 1—The Prevalence Study, US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 1980. NIH Pub. No. 80-1527, July.

191.  Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem, 1972, 18;499-502.

192.  Nauck M, Kramer-Guth A, Bartens W, Marz W, Wieland H, Wanner C. Is the determination of LDL cholesterol according to Friedewald accurate in CAPD and HD patients?. Clin Nephrol, 1996, 46;319-325.

193.  Bairaktari E, Elisaf M, Tzallas C, et al. Evaluation of five methods for determining low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in hemodialysis patients. Clin Biochem, 2001, 34;593-602.

194.  Sent M, Pedro-Botet J, Noguës X, Rubiës-Prat J. Influence of intermediate-density lipoproteins on the accuracy of the Friedewald formula. Clin Chem, 1991, 37;1394-1397.

195.  Ticho BS, Neufeld EJ, Newburger JW, Harris N, Baker A, Rifai N. Utility of direct measurement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in dyslipidemic pediatric patients. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 1998, 152;787-791.

196.  Gore JM, Goldberg RJ, Matsumoto AS, Castelli WP, McNamara PM, Dalen JE. Validity of serum total cholesterol level obtained within 24 hours of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol, 1984, 54;722-725.

197.  Ryder REJ, Hayes TM, Mulligan IP, Kingswood JC, Willimas S, Owens DR. How soon after myocardial infarction should plasma lipid values be assessed?. BMJ, 1984, 289;1651-1653.

198.  Henkin Y, Crystal E, Goldberg Y, et al. Usefulness of lipoprotein changes during acute coronary syndromes for predicting postdischarge lipoprotein levels. Am J Cardiol, 2002, 89;7-11.

199.  Mendez I, Hachinski V, Wolfe B. Serum lipids after stroke. Neurology, 1987, 37;507-511.

200.  Gallin JI, Kaye D, O’Leary WM. Serum lipids in infection. N Engl J Med, 1969, 281;1081-1086.

201.  Alvarez C, Ramos A. Lipids, lipoproteins, and apoproteins in serum during infection. Clin Chem, 1986, 32;142-145.

202.  Sammalkorpi K, Valtonen V, Kerttula Y, Nikkilä E, Taskinen M-R. Changes in serum lipoprotein pattern induced by acute infections. Metabolism, 1988, 37;859-865.

203.  Figueroa O, Franco-Saenz R, Mulrow PJ, Montesinos E. Changes in cholesterol levels after coronary artery bypass surgery. Am J Med Sci, 1992, 303;73-77.

204.  Aufenanger J, Walter H, Kattermann R. [Studies of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in man after surgical interventions]. Langenbecks Arch Chir, 1993, 378;41-48.

205.  Akgun S, Ertel NH, Mosenthal A, Oser W. Postsurgical reduction of serum lipoproteins: Interleukin-6 and the acute-phase response. J Lab Clin Med, 1998, 131;103-108.

206.  Dominguez-Munoz JE, Malfertheiner P, Ditschuneit HH, et al. Hyperlipidemia in acute pancreatitis. Relationship with etiology, onset, and severity of the disease. Int J Pancreatol, 1991, 10;261-267.

207.  Glueck CJ, Lang J, Hamer T, Tracy T. Severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis when estrogen replacement therapy is given to hypertriglyceridemic women. J Lab Clin Med, 1994, 123;59-64.

208.  Kasiske BL, Heim-Duthoy KL. Transient reductions in serum cholesterol after renal transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis, 1992, 20;387-393.

209.  Kasiske BL, Vazquez MA, Harmon WE, et al. Recommendations for the outpatient surveillance of renal transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol, 2000, 11;S1.

210.  Johnson C, Ahsan N, Gonwa T, et al. Randomized trial of tacrolimus (Prograf) in combination with azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil versus cyclosporine (Neoral) with mycophenolate mofetil after cadaveric kidney transplantation. Transplantation, 2000, 69;834-841.

211.  McCune TR, Thacker LR II, Peters TG, et al. Effects of tacrolimus on hyperlipidemia after successful renal transplantation: A Southeastern Organ Procurement Foundation multicenter clinical study. Transplantation, 1998, 65;87-92.

212.  Vanrenterghem Y, Lebranchu Y, Hené R, Oppenheimer F, Ekberg H. Double-blind comparison of two corticosteroid regimens plus mycophenolate mofetil and cyclsporine for prevention of acute renal allograft rejection. Transplantation, 2000, 70;1352-1359.

213.  Curtis JJ, Galla JH, Woodford SY, Lucas BA, Luke RG. Effect of alternate-day prednisone on plasma lipids in renal transplant recipients. Kidney Int, 1982, 22;42-47.

214.  Hollander AA, Hene RJ, Hermans J, Van Es LA, van der Woude FJ. Late prednisone withdrawal in cyclosporine-treated kidney transplant patients: A randomized study. J Am Soc Nephrol, 1997, 8;294-301.

215.  Hilbrands LB, Demacker PN, Hoitsma AJ, Stalenhoef AF, Koene RA. The effects of cyclosporine and prednisone on serum lipid and (apo)lipoprotein levels in renal transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol, 1995, 5;2073-2081.

216.  John GT, Dakshinamurthy DS, Jeyaseelan L, Jacob CK. The effect of cyclosporin A on plasma lipids during the first year after renal transplantation. Natl Med J India, 1999, 12;14-17.

217.  Ingram AJ, Parbtani A, Churchill DN. Effects of two low-flux cellulose acetate dialysers on plasma lipids and lipoproteins—A cross-over trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1998, 13;1452-1457.

218.  Joven J, Villabona C, Vilella E, Masana L, Albert R, Vallës M. Abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism in patients with the nephrotic syndrome. N Engl J Med, 1990, 323;579-584.

219.  Joven J, Espinel E, Simo JM, Vilella E, Camps J, Oliver A. The influence of hypoalbuminemia in the generation of nephrotic hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis, 1996, 126;243-252.

220.  Kaysen GA, Don B, Schambelan M. Proteinuria, albumin synthesis and hyperlipidaemia in the nephrotic syndrome. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1991, 6;141-149.

221.  Warwick GL, Packard CJ, Demant T, Bedford DK, Boulton-Jones JM, Shepherd J. Metabolism of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in subjects with nephrotic-range proteinuria. Kidney Int, 1991, 40;129-138.

222.  Stenvinkel P, Berglund L, Ericsson S, Alvestrand A, Angelin B, Eriksson M. Low-density lipoprotein metabolism and its association to plasma lipoprotein(a) in the nephrotic syndrome. Eur J Clin Invest, 1997, 27;169-177.

223.  Demant T, Mathes C, Gütlich K, et al. A simultaneous study of the metabolism of apolipoprotein B and albumin in nephrotic patients. Kidney Int, 1998, 54;2064-2080.

224.  O’Brien T, Dinneen SF, O’Brien PC, Palumbo PJ. Hyperlipidemia in patients with primary and secondary hypothyroidism. Mayo Clin Proc, 1993, 68;860-866.

225.  Tsimihodimos V, Bairaktari E, Tzallas C, Miltiadus G, Liberopoulos E, Elisaf M. The incidence of thyroid function abnormalities in patients attending an outpatient lipid clinic. Thyroid, 1999, 9;365-368.

226.  Morris MS, Bostom AG, Jacques PF, Selhub J, Rosenberg IH. Hyperhomocysteinemia and hypercholesterolemia associated with hypothyroidism in the third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Atherosclerosis, 2001, 155;195-200.

227.  Verges BL. Dyslipidaemia in diabetes mellitus. Review of the main lipoprotein abnormalities and their consequences on the development of atherogenesis. Diabet Metab, 2000, 2;S31-S36.

228.  Best JD, O’Neal DN. Diabetic dyslipidaemia: Current treatment recommendations. Drugs, 2000, 59;1101-1111.

229.  Betteridge DJ. Diabetic dyslipidaemia. Diabet Obes Metab, 2000, 2;S31-S36.

230.  Avogaro P, Cazzolato G. Changes in the composition and physico-chemical characteristics of serum lipoproteins during ethanol-induced lipaemia in alcoholic subjects. Metab Clin Exp, 1975, 24;1231-1242.

231.  Castelli WP, Doyle JT, Gordon T, et al. Alcohol and blood lipids. The cooperative lipoprotein phenotyping study. Lancet, 1977, 2;153-155.

232.  Lifton L, Scheig R. Ethanol-induced hypertriglyceridemia. Prevalence and contributing factors. Am J Clin Nutr, 1978, 31;614-618.

233.  Marth E, Cazzolato G, Bittolo BG, Avogaro P, Kostner GM. Serum concentrations of Lp(a) and other lipoprotein parameters in heavy alcohol consumers. Ann Nutr Metab, 1982, 26;56-62.

234.  Taskinen MR, Nikkila EA, Valimaki M, et al. Alcohol-induced changes in serum lipoproteins and in their metabolism. Am Heart J, 1987, 113;458-464.

235.  Seidel D. Hyperlipoproteinemias and liver disease. Adv Exp Med Biol, 1973, 38;143-153.

236.  Muller P, Felin R, Lambrecht J, et al. Hypertriglyceridaemia secondary to liver disease. Eur J Clin Invest, 1974, 4;419-428.

237.  Iglesias A, Arranz M, Alvarez JJ, et al. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity in liver disease and cholestasis, and its relation with fatty acid composition of lipoprotein lipids. Clin Chim Acta, 1996, 248;157-174.

238.  Flynn WJ, Freeman PG, Wickboldt LG. Pancreatitis associated with isotretinoin-induced hypertriglyceridemia. Ann Int Med, 1987, 107;63.

239.  Tangrea JA, Adrianza E, Helsel WE, et al. Clinical and laboratory adverse effects associated with long-term, low-dose isotretinoin: Incidence and risk factors. The Isotretinoin-Basal Cell Carcinomas Study Group. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 1993, 2;375-380.

240.  Koistinen HA, Remitz A, Gylling H, Miettinen TA, Koivisto VA, Ebeling P. Dyslipidemia and a reversible decrease in insulin sensitivity induced by therapy with 13-cis-retinoic acid. Diabetes Metabol Res Rev, 2001, 17;391-395.

241.  Luoma PV, Myllyla VV, Sotaniemi EA, Hokkanen TE. Plasma HDL cholesterol in epileptics with elevated triglyceride and cholesterol. Acta Neurol Scand, 1979, 60;56-63.

242.  Verrotti A, Domizio S, Angelozzi B, Sabatino G, Morgese G, Chiarelli F. Changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins in epileptic children treated with anticonvulsants. J Paediatr Child Health, 1997, 33;242-245.

243.  Papacostas S. Oxcarbazepine versus carbamazepine treatment and induction of serum lipid abnormalities. J Child Neurol, 2000, 15;138-140.

244.  Dube MP, Sprecher D, Henry WK, et al. Preliminary guidelines for the evaluation and management of dyslipidemia in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus and receiving antiretroviral therapy: Recommendations of the Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group Cardiovascular Disease Focus Group. Clin Infect Dis, 2000, 31;1216-1224.

245.  Vergis EN, Paterson DL, Wagener MM, Swindells S, Singh N. Dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected patients: Association with adherence to potent antiretroviral therapy. Int J STD AIDS, 2001, 12;463-468.

246.  Rakotoambinina B, Medioni J, Rabian C, Jubault V, Jais JP, Viard JP. Lipodystrophic syndromes and hyperlipidemia in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients receiving triple combination antiretroviral therapy with a protease inhibitor. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2001, 27;443-449.

247.  Kasiske BL, Ma JZ, Kalil RSN, Louis TA. Effects of antihypertensive agents on serum lipids. Ann Intern Med, 1995, 122;133-141.

248.  Webb OL, Laskarzewski PM, Glueck CJ. Severe depression of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in weight lifters and body builders by self-administered exogenous testosterone and anabolic-androgenic steroids. Metabol Clin Exp, 1984, 33;971-975.

249.  Thompson PD, Cullinane EM, Sady SP, et al. Contrasting effects of testosterone and stanozolol on serum lipoprotein levels. JAMA, 1989, 261;1165-1168.

250.  Teruel JL, Lasuncion MA, Rivera M, et al. Nandrolone decanoate reduces serum lipoprotein(a) concentrations in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis, 1997, 29;569-575.

251.  Castelo-Branco C, Vicente JJ, Figueras F, et al. Comparative effects of estrogens plus androgens and tibolone on bone, lipid pattern and sexuality in postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 2000, 34;161-168.

252.  van Stiphout WA, Grobbee DE, Hofman A, de Bruijn AM. Do oral contraceptives increase blood pressure and serum total cholesterol in young women?. Prev Med, 1990, 19;623-629.

253.  Flint PM, Lapane KL, Barbour MM, Derby CA, Carleton RA, Hume AL. Cardiovascular risk profiles of oral contraceptive users and nonusers: A population-based study. Prev Med, 1995, 24;586-590.

254.  Connelly PW, Stachenko S, MacLean DR, Petrasovits A, Little JA. The prevalence of hyperlipidemia in women and its association with use of oral contraceptives, sex hormone replacement therapy and nonlipid coronary artery disease risk factors. Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group. Can J Cardiol, 1999, 15;419-427.

255.  Kupin W, Venkat KK, Oh HK, Dienst S. Complete replacement of methylprednisolone by azathioprine in cyclosporine-treated primary cadaveric renal transplant recipients. Transplantation, 1988, 45;53-55.

256.  Ingulli E, Tejani A, Markell M. The beneficial effects of steroid withdrawal on blood pressure and lipid profile in children posttransplantation in the cyclosporine ERA. Transplantation, 1993, 55;1029-1033.

257.  Hricik DE, Mayes JT, Schulak JA. Independent effects of cyclosporine and prednisone on posttransplant hypercholesterolemia. Am J Kidney Dis, 1991, 18;353-358.

258.  Groth CG, Backman L, Morales JM, et al. Sirolimus (rapamycin)-based therapy in human renal transplantation: Similar efficacy and different toxicity compared with cyclosporine. Sirolimus European Renal Transplant Study Group. Transplantation, 1999, 67;1036-1042.

259.  Hoogeveen RC, Ballantyne CM, Pownall HJ, et al. Effect of sirolimus on the metabolism of ApoB100-containing lipoproteins in renal transplant patients. Transplantation, 2001, 72;1244-1250.

260.  Vierhapper H, Nardi A, Grosser P, Raber W, Gessl A. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid, 2000, 10;981-984.

261.  Laszlo A, Simon M. Serum lipid and lipoprotien levels in premature ageing syndrome: Total lipodystrophy and Cockayne syndrome. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 1986, 5;189-196.

262.  Huemer C, Kitson H, Malleson PN, et al. Lipodystrophy in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis—Evaluation of clinical and metabolic abnormalities. J Rheumatol, 2001, 28;610-615.

263.  Evliyaoglu O, Berberoglu M, Ocal G, Adiyaman P, Aycan Z. Severe hypercalcemia of an infant due to vitamin D toxicity associated with hypercholesterolemia. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 2001, 14;915-919.

264.  Jordan SC. Cardiac lesions in children with “hypercalcaemic” facies. Bristol Med Chir J, 1969, 84;121-123.

265.  Levy E, Thibault L, Roy CC, Letarte J, Lambert M, Seidman EG. Mechanisms of hypercholesterolaemia in glycogen storage disease type I: Defective metabolism of low density lipoprotein in cultured skin fibroblasts. Eur J Clin Invest, 1990, 20;253-260.

266.  Levy E, Thibault LA, Roy CC, Bendayan M, Lepage G, Letar J. Circulating lipids and lipoproteins in glycogen storage disease type I with nocturnal intragastric feeding. J Lipid Res, 1988, 29;215-226.

267.  Forget PP, Fernandes J, Begemann PH. Triglyceride clearing in glycogen storage disease. Pediatr Res, 1974, 8;114-119.

268.  Fernandes J, Pikaar NA. Hyperlipidemia in children with liver glycogen disease. Am J Clin Nutr, 1969, 22;617-627.

269.  Tazawa Y, Yamada M, Nakagawa M, Konno T, Tada K. Biliary lipid compositions in cholestatic diseases of infancy. Arch Dis Child, 1983, 58;819-823.

270.  Robberecht E, Koletzko B, Christophe A. Several mechanisms contribute to the abnormal fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids and cholesterol esters in cholestatic children with extrahepatic biliary atresia. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 1997, 56;199-204.

271.  Mordasini R, Klose G, Greten H. Secondary type II hyperlipoproteinemia in patients with anorexia nervosa. Metabolism, 1978, 27;71-79.

272.  Halmi K, Fry M. Serum lipids in anorexia nervosa. Biol Psychiatry, 1974, 8;159-167.

273.  Szamosi T, Szollar J, Meggyesi V, Wilhelm O, Bodanszky H, Matyus J. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in progeria: a model of ageing. Mech Ageing Dev, 1984, 28;243-248.

274.  Macnamara BG, Farn KT, Mitra AK, Lloyd JK, Fosbrooke A. Progeria. Case report with long-term studies of serum lipids. Arch Dis Child, 1970, 45;553-560.

275.  Petri M, Spence D, Bone LR, Hochberg MC. Coronary artery disease risk factors in the Johns Hopkins Lupus Cohort: Prevalence, recognition by patients, and preventive practices. Medicine, 1992, 71;291-302.

276.  Sondheimer HM, Lorts A. Cardiac involvement in inflammatory disease: Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatic fever, and Kawasaki disease. Adolesc Med, 2001, 12;69-78.

277.  Rutsky EA, Robards M, Van Dyke JA, Rostand SG. Acute pancreatitis in patients with end-stage renal disease without transplantation. Arch Intern Med, 1986, 146;1741-1745.

278.  Padilla B, Pollak VE, Pesce A, Kant KS, Gilinsky NH, Deddens JA. Pancreatitis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Medicine, 1994, 73;8-20.

279.  Keilani T, Schlueter WA, Levin ML, Batlle DC. Improvement of lipid abnormalities associated with proteinuria using fosinopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Ann Intern Med, 1993, 118;246-254.

280.  Ravid M, Neumann L, Lishner M. Plasma lipids and the progression of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus type II: Effect of ACE inhibitors. Kidney Int, 1995, 47;907-910.

281.  Schnack C, Hoffmann W, Hopmeier P, Schernthaner G. Renal and metabolic effects of 1-year treatment with ramipril or atenolol in NIDDM patients with microalbuminuria. Diabetologia, 1996, 39;1611-1616.

282.  Agardh CD, Garcia-Puig J, Charbonnel B, Angelkort B, Barnett AH. Greater reduction of urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive type II diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy by lisinopril than by nifedipine. J Human Hypertens, 1996, 10;185-192.

283.  Coggins CH, Dwyer JT, Greene T, Petot G, Snetselaar LG, Van Lente F. Serum lipid changes associated with modified protein diets: results from the feasibility phase of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Am J Kidney Dis, 1994, 23;514-523.

284.  Yu-Poth S, Zhao G, Etherton T, Naglak M, Jonnalagadda S, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Step I and Step II dietary intervention programs on cardiovascular disease risk factors: A meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr, 1999, 69;632-646.

285.  National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI). Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure. Am J Kidney Dis, 2000, 35;S1-S140.

286.  Physical activity and cardiovascular health. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health. JAMA, 1996, 276;241-246.

287.  Castaneda C, Grossi L, Dwyer J. Potential benefits of resistance exercise training on nutritional status in renal failure. J Ren Nutr, 1998, 8;2-10.

288.  Wenger NK. Lipid metabolism, physical activity, and postmenopausal hormone therapy. Am J Kidney Dis, 1998, 32;S80-S88.

289.  Halbert JA, Silagy CA, Finucane P, Withers RT, Hamdorf PA. Exercise training and blood lipids in hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic adults: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr, 1999, 53;514-522.

290.  Deligiannis A, Kouidi E, Tassoulas E, Gigis P, Tourkantonis A, Coats A. Cardiac effects of exercise rehabilitation in hemodialysis patients. Int J Cardiol, 1999, 70;253-266.

291.  Goldberg AP, Geltman EM, Hagberg JM, et al. Therapeutic benefits of exercise training for hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int Suppl, 1983, 16;S303-S309.

292.  Soroka N, Silverberg DS, Greemland M, et al. Comparison of a vegetable-based (soya) and an animal-based low-protein diet in predialysis chronic renal failure patients. Nephron, 1998, 79;173-180.

293.  Khajehdehi P. Effect of vitamins on the lipid profile of patients on regular hemodialysis. Scand J Urol Nephrol, 2000, 34;62-66.

294.  Khajehdehi P. Lipid-lowering effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr, 2000, 10;191-195.

295.  Seri S, D’Alessandro A, Acitelli S, Giammaria U, Cocchi M, Noble RC. Effect of dietary supplementation by alternative oils on blood lipid levels of haemodialysed patients. Med Sci Res, 1993, 21;315-316.

296.  Schrader J, Stibbe W, Armstrong VW, et al. Comparison of low molecular weight heparin to standard heparin in hemodialysis/hemofiltration. Kidney Int, 1988, 33;890-896.

297.  Kronenberg F, Konig P, Lhotta K, Steinmetz A, Dieplinger H. Low molecular weight heparin does not necessarily reduce lipids and lipoproteins in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol, 1995, 43;399-404.

298.  Saltissi D, Morgan C, Westhuyzen J, Healy H. Comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin sodium) and standard unfractionated heparin for haemodialysis anticoagulation. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1999, 14;2698-2703.

299.  Blankestijn PJ, Vos PF, Rabelink TJ, van Rijn HJ, Jansen H, Koomans HA. High-flux dialysis membranes improve lipid profile in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol, 1995, 5;1703-1708.

300.  Golper TA, Wolfson M, Ahmad S, et al. Multicenter trial of L-carnitine in maintenance hemodialysis patients. I. Carnitine concentrations and lipid effects. Kidney Int, 1990, 38;904-911.

301.  Weschler A, Aviram M, Levin M, Better OS, Brook JG. High dose of L-carnitine increases platelet aggregation and plasma triglyceride levels in uremic patients on hemodialysis. Nephron, 1984, 38;120-124.

302.  Nilsson-Ehle P, Cederblad G, Fagher B, Monti M, Thysell H. Plasma lipoproteins, liver function and glucose metabolism in haemodialysis patients: Lack of effect of L-carnitine supplementation. Scand J Clin Lab Invest, 1985, 45;179-184.

303.  Giorcelli G, Vacha G, Icardi GP. Drug treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia in chronic uraemic patients: Preliminary report on D,L-carnitine and thiadenol. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc, 1980, 17;367-371.

304.  Casciani CU, Caruso U, Cravotto E, et al. L-carnitine in haemodialysed patients. Changes in lipid pattern. Arzneimittelfor, 1982, 32;293-297.

305.  Saltissi D, Morgan C, Rigby RJ, Westhuyzen J. Safety and efficacy of simvastatin in hypercholesterolemic patients undergoing chronic renal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis, 2002, 39;283-290.

306.  Chang JW, Yang WS, Min WK, Lee SK, Park JS, Kim SB. Effects of simvastatin on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and serum albumin in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis, 2002, 39;1213-1217.

307.  Chertow GM, Burke SK, Lazarus JM, et al. Poly[allylamine hydrochloride] (RenaGel): A noncalcemic phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis, 1997, 29;66-71.

308.  Braunlin W, Zhorov E, Guo A, et al. Bile acid binding to sevelamer HCl. Kidney Int, 2002, 62;611-619.

309.  Park JS, Jung HH, Yang WS, Kim SB, Min WK, Chi HS. Effects of hormonal replacement therapy on lipid and haemostatic factors in post-menopausal ESRD patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2000, 15;1835-1840.

310.  Harris KPG, Wheeler DC, Chong CC, Atorvastatin in CAPD Study Investigators. A placebo-controlled trial examining atorvastatin in dyslipidemic patients undergoing CAPD. Kidney Int, 2002, 61;1469-1474.

311.  Bennett WM, Carpenter CB, Shapiro ME, et al. Delayed omega-3 fatty acid supplements in renal transplantation. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Transplantation, 1995, 59;352-356.

312.  Urakaze M, Hamazaki T, Yano S, Kashiwabara H, Oomori K, Yokoyama T. Effect of fish oil concentrate on risk factors of cardiovascular complications in renal transplantation. Transplant Proc, 1989, 21;2134-2136.

313.  Maachi K, Berthoux P, Burgard G, Alamartine E, Berthoux F. Results of a 1-year randomized controlled trial with omega-3 fatty acid fish oil in renal transplantation under triple immunosuppressive therapy. Transplant Proc, 1995, 27;846-849.

314.  Holdaas H, Jardine AG, Wheeler DC, et al. Effect of fluvastatin on acute renal allograft rejection: A randomized multicenter trial. Kidney Int, 2001, 60;1990-1997.

315.  Kasiske BL, Heim-Duthoy KL, Singer GG, Watschinger B, Germain MJ, Bastani B. The effects of lipid-lowering agents on acute renal allograft rejection. Transplantation, 2001, 72;223-227.

316.  Arnadottir M, Eriksson L-O, Germershausen JI, Thysell H, Eriksson LO. Low-dose simvastatin is a well-tolerated and efficacious cholesterol-lowering agent in ciclosporin-treated kidney transplant recipients: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in 40 patients. Nephron, 1994, 68;57-62.

317.  Martinez Hernandez BE, Persaud JW, Varghese Z, Moorhead JF. Low-dose simvastatin is safe in hyperlipidaemic renal transplant patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1993, 8;637-641.

318.  Castro R, Queiròs J, Fonseca I, et al. Therapy of post-renal transplantation hyperlipidaemia: Comparative study with simvastatin and fish oil. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 1997, 12;2140-2143.

319.  Katznelson S, Wilkinson AH, Kobashigawa JA, et al. The effect of pravastatin on acute rejection after kidney transplantation—A pilot study. Transplantation, 1996, 61;1469-1474.

320.  Kliem V, Wanner C, Eisenhauer T, et al. Comparison of pravastatin and lovastatin in renal transplant patients receiving cyclosporine. Transplant Proc, 1996, 28;3126-3128.

321.  Sahu K, Sharma R, Gupta A, et al. Effect of lovastatin, an HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, on acute renal allograft rejection. Clinical Transplant, 2001, 15;173-175.

322.  Kasiske BL, Tortorice KL, Heim-Duthoy KL, Goryance JM, Rao KV. Lovastatin treatment of hypercholesterolemia in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation, 1990, 49;95-100.

323.  Renders L, Mayer-Kadner I, Koch C, et al. Efficacy and drug interactions of the new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors cerivastatin and atorvastatin in CsA-treated renal transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2001, 16;141-146.

324.  Santos AF, Keitel E, Bittar AE, et al. Safety and efficacy of simvastatin for hyperlipidemia in renal transplant recipients: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Transplant Proc, 2001, 33;1194-1195.

325.  Pasternak RC, Smith SC Jr, Bairey-Merz CN, Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Lenfant C. ACC/AHA/NHLBI Clinical Advisory on the Use and Safety of Statins. Stroke, 2002, 33;2337-2341.

326.  Stern RH, Yang BB, Horton M, Moore S, Abel RB, Olson SC. Renal dysfunction does not alter the pharmacokinetics or LDL-cholesterol reduction of atorvastatin. J Clin Pharmacol, 1997, 37;816-819.

327.  Halstenson CE, Triscari J, DeVault A, Shapiro B, Keane W, Pan H. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of pravastatin and metabolites in patients with renal impariment. J Clin Pharmacol, 1992, 32;124-132.

328.  Gehr TWB, Sica DA, Slugg PH, Hammett JL, Raymond R, Ford NF. The pharmacokinetics of pravastatin in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 1997, 53;117-121.

329.  Quérin S, Lambert R, Cusson JR, et al. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of 14C-lovastatin in chronic renal failure. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1991, 50;437-441.

330.  Mazzu AL, Lettieri JT, Kelly E, et al. Influence of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of cerivastatin in normocholesterolemic adults. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 2000, 56;69-74.

331.  Lesne M, Sturbois X, Mercier M. Etude pharmacocinetique comparative de deux formes galeniques d’acide nicitinique. Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetica, 1976, 51;367-370.

332.  Abshagen U, Kösters W, Kaufman B, Lang PD. Pharmacokinetics of bezafibrate after single and multiple doses in the presence of renal failure. Klin Wochenschr, 2001, 58;889-896.

333.  Anderson P, Norbeck HE. Clinical pharmacokinetics of bezafibrate in patients with impaired renal function. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 1981, 21;209-214.

334.  Williams AJ, Baker F, Walls J. The short term effects of bezafibrate on the hypertriglyceridaemia of moderate to severe uraemia. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 1984, 18;361-367.

335.  Goldberg AP, Sherrard DJ, Haas LB, Brunzell JD. Control of clofibrate toxicity in uremic hypertriglyceridemia. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1977, 21;317-325.

336.  Viikari J, Anttila M, Kasanen A. The use of clofibrate in patients with renal insufficiency. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol, 1983, 21;77-80.

337.  Merk W, Graben N, Hartmann H, Nikolaus C, Schlierf G, Schwandt P. Serum levels of free non-protein bound clofibrinic acid after single dosing to patients with impaired renal function of various degrees—A multicenter study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol, 1987, 25;59-62.

338.  Desager JP, Costermans J, Verberckmoes R, Harvengt C. Effect of hemodialysis on plasma kinetics of fenofibrate in chronic renal failure. Nephron, 1982, 31;51-54.

339.  Knauf H, Kolle EU, Mutschler E. Gemfibrozil absorption and elimination in kidney and liver disease. Klin Wochenschr, 1990, 68;692-698.

340.  Evans JR, Forland SC, Cutler RE. The effect of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of gemfibrozil. J Clin Pharmacol, 1987, 27;994-1000.

341.  Ridker PM, Rifai N, Clearfield M, et al. Measurement of C-reactive protein for the targeting of statin therapy in the primary prevention of acute coronary events. N Engl J Med, 2001, 344;1959-1965.

342.  Albert MA, Danielson E, Rifai N, Ridker PM, PRINCE Investigators. Effect of statin therapy on C-reactive protein levels: The pravastatin inflammation/CRP evaluation (PRINCE): A randomized trial and cohort study. JAMA, 2001, 286;64-70.

343.  Gotto AM, Farmer JA. Pleitropic effects of statins: Do they matter?. Curr Opin Lipidol, 2001, 12;391-394.

344.  Munford RS. Statins and the acute-phase response. N Engl J Med, 2001, 344;2016-2018.

345.  Simpson RJ Jr. Placing PRINCE in perspective. JAMA, 2001, 286;91-93.

346.  Asberg A, Hartmann A, Fjeldsa E, Bergan S, Holdaas H. Bilateral pharmacokinetic interaction between cyclosporine A and atorvastatin in renal transplant recipients. Am J Transplant, 2001, 1;382-386.

347.  Mück W, Mai I, Fritsche L, et al. Increase in cerivastatin systemic exposure after single and multiple dosing in cyclosporine-treated kidney transplant recipients. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1999, 65;251-261.

348.  Arnadottir M, Eriksson L-O, Thysell H, Karkas JD. Plasma concentration profiles of simvastatin 3-hydroxy-3-methyl- glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitory activity in kidney transplant recipients with and without ciclosporin. Nephron, 1993, 65;410-413.

349.  Ichimaru N, Takahara S, Kokado Y, et al. Changes in lipid metabolism and effect of simvastatin in renal transplant recipients induced by cyclosporine or tacrolimus. Atherosclerosis, 2001, 158;417-423.

350.  Velosa JA, La Belle P, Ronca PD, et al. Pharmacokinetics of lovastatin in renal transplant patients on azathioprine or cyclosporine. J Am Soc Nephrol, 1990, 1;325. (abstr).

351.  Cooper GR, Myers GL, Smith SJ, Schlant RC. Blood lipid measurements. Variations and practical utility. JAMA, 1992, 267;1652-1660.

352.  Olbricht C, Wanner C, Eisenhauer T, et al. Accumulation of lovastatin, but not pravastatin, in the blood of cyclosporine-treated kidney graft patients after multiple doses. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1997, 62;311-321.

353.  Goldberg R, Roth D. Evaluation of fluvastatin in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in renal transplant recipients taking cyclosporine. Transplantation, 1996, 62;1559-1564.

354.  Kovarik JM, Hartmann S, Hubert M, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors when coadministered with everolimus. J Clin Pharmacol, 2002, 42;222-228.

355.  Siedlik PH, Olson SC, Yang BB, Stern RH. Erythromycin coadministration increases plasma atorvastatin concentrations. J Clin Pharmacol, 1999, l39;501-504.

356.  Kantola T, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Erythromycin and verapamil considerably increase serum simvastatin and simvastatin acid concentrations. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1998, 64;177-182.

357.  Kantola T, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1998, 64;58-65.

358.  Mazzu AL, Lasseter KC, Shamblen EC, Agarwal V, Lettieri J, Sundaresen P. Itraconazole alters the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin to a greater extent than either cerivastatin or pravastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2000, 68;391-400.

359.  Neuvonen PJ, Jalava KM. Itraconazole drastically increases plasma concentrations of lovastatin and lovastatin acid. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1996, 60;54-61.

360.  Kivisto KT, Kantola T, Neuvonen PJ. Different effects of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin and lovastatin. Brit J Clin Pharmacol, 1998, 46;49-53.

361.  Neuvonen PJ, Kantola T, Kivisto KT. Simvastatin but not pravastatin is very susceptible to interaction with the CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1998, 63;332-341.

362.  Kantola T, Backman JT, Niemi M, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of fluconazole on plasma fluvastatin and pravastatin concentrations. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 2000, 56;225-229.

363.  Azie NE, Brater DC, Becker PA, Jones DR, Hall SD. The interaction of diltiazem with lovastatin and pravastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1998, 64;369-377.

364.  Mousa O, Brater DC, Sunblad KJ, Hall SD. The interaction of diltiazem with simvastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2000, 67;267-274.

365.  Ziviani L, Da Ros L, Squassante L, Milleri S, Cugola M, Iavarone LE. The effects of lacidipine on the steady/state plasma concentrations of simvastatin in healthy subjects. Brit J Clin Pharmacol, 2001, 51;147-152.

366.  Jacobson RH, Wang P, Glueck CJ. Myositis and rhabdomyolysis associated with concurrent use of simvastatin and nefazodone. JAMA, 1997, 277;296-297.

367.  Alderman CP. Possible interaction between nefazodone and pravastatin. Ann Pharmacother, 1999, 33;871.

368.  Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Grapefruit juice increases serum concentrations of atorvastatin and has no effect on pravastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1999, 66;118-127.

369.  Kantola T, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Grapefruit juice greatly increases serum concentrations of lovastatin and lovastatin acid. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1998, 63;397-402.

370.  Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. Grapefruit juice-simvastatin interaction: Effect on serum concentrations of simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1998, 64;477-483.

371.  DiTusa L, Luzier AB. Potential interaction between troglitazone and atorvastatin. J Clin Pharm Ther, 2000, 25;279-282.

372.  Lin JC, Ito MK. A drug interaction between troglitazone and simvastatin. Diabetes Care, 1999, 22;2104-2106.

373.  Kyrklund C, Backman JT, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen M, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ. Rifampin greatly reduces plasma simvastatin and simvastatin acid concentrations. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2000, 68;592-597.

374.  Nakai A, Nishikata M, Matsuyama K, Ichikawa M. Drug interaction between simvastatin and cholestyramine in vitro and in vivo. Bio Pharm Bull, 1996, 19;1231-1233.

375.  Wen X, Wang J-S, Backman JT, Kivstö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Gemfibrozil is a potent inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 2C9. Drug Metab Dispos, 2001, 29;1359-1361.

376.  Backman JT, Kyrklund C, Kivisto KT, Wang JS, Neuvonen PJ. Plasma concentrations of active simvastatin acid are increased by gemfibrozil. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2000, 68;122-129.

377.  Pan W-J, Gustavson LE, Achari R, et al. Lack of a clinicallly significant pharmacokinenic interaction between fenofibrate and pravstatin in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol, 2000, 40;316-323.

378.  Kyrklund C, Backman JT, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen M, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ. Plasma concentrations of active lovastatin acid are markedly increased by gemfibrozil but not by bezafibrate. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2001, 69;340-345.

379.  Spence JD, Munoz CE, Hendricks L, Latchinian L, Khouri HE. Pharmacokinetics of the combination of fluvastatin and gemfibrozil. Am J Cardiol, 1995, 76;80A-83A.

380.  Hunninghake D, Insull W Jr, Toth P, Davidson D, Donovan JM, Burke SK. Coadministration of colesevelam hydrochloride with atorvastatin lowers LDL cholesterol additively. Atherosclerosis, 2001, 158;407-416.

381.  Chertow GM, Burke SK, Raggi P. Sevelamer attenuates the progression of coronary and aortic calcification in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int, 2002, 62;245-252.

382.  Keogh A, Day R, Critchley L, Duggin G, Baron D. The effect of food and cholestyramine in the absorption of cyclosporine in cardiac transplant recipients. Transplant Proc, 1988, 20;27-30.

383.  Jensen RA, Lal SM, Diaz-Arias A, et al. Does cholestyramine interfere with cyclosporine absorption?. A prospective study in renal transplant patients. ASAIO J, 1995, 41;M704-M706.

384.  Austin MA, Hokanson JE, Edwards KL. Hypertriglyceridemia as a cardiovascular risk factor. Am J Cardiol, 1998, 81;7B-12B.

385.  Assmann G, Schulte H, Funke H, Von Eckardstein A. The emergence of triglycerides as a significant independent risk factor in coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J, 1998, 19;M8-M14.

386.  Cui Y, Blumenthal RS, Flaws JA, et al. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as a predictor of cardiovascular disease mortality. Arch Intern Med, 2001, 161;1413-1419.

387.  Abate N, Vega GL, Grundy SM. Variability in cholesterol content and physical properties of lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein B-100. Atherosclerosis, 1993, 104;159-171.

388.  Plasma lipid distributions in selected North American populations: The Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. The Lipid Research Clinics Program Epidemiology Committee. Circulation, 1979, 60;427-439.

389.  Shoji T, Nishizawa Y, Kawagishi T, et al. Atherogenic lipoprotein changes in the absence of hyperlipidemia in patients with chronic renal failure treated by hemodialysis. Atherosclerosis, 1997, 131;229-236.

390.  Effect of intensive diabetes management on macrovascular events and risk factors in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Am J Cardiol, 1995, 75;894-903.

391.  Lawson ML, Gerstein HC, Tsui E, Zinman B. Effect of intensive therapy on early macrovascular disease in young individuals with type 1 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 1999, 22;B35-B39.

392.  UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet, 1998, 352;837-853.

393.  Lageder H. [Comparative double-blind investigation of bezafibrate and clofibrate in patients with primary hyperlipoproteinaemia]. Wien Klin Wochenschr, 1980, 92;95-101.

394.  Dick TB, Marples J, Ledermann HM, Whittington J. Comparative study of once and 3-times daily regimens of bezafibrate in patients with primary hyperlipoproteinaemia. Curr Med Res Opin, 1981, 7;489-502.

395.  Mertz DP, Lang PD, Vollmar J. Bezafibrate: Lack of effect on creatinine excretion and muscular proteins. Res Exper Med, 1982, 180;95-98.

396.  Olsson AG, Lang PD, Vollmar J. Effect of bezafibrate during 4.5 years of treatment of hyperlipoproteinaemia. Atherosclerosis, 1985, 55;195-203.

397.  Barbir M, Hunt B, Kushwaha S, et al. Maxepa versus bezafibrate in hyperlipidemic cardiac transplant recipients. Am J Cardiol, 1992, 70;1596-1601.

398.  Lipkin GW, Tomson CRV. Severe reversible renal fairlue with bezafibrate. Lancet, 1993, 341;371.

399.  Bruce R, Daniels A, Cundy T. Renal function changes in diabetic nephropathy induced by bezafibrate. Nephron, 1996, 73;490.

400.  Hirai M, Tatuso E, Sakurai M, Ichikawa M, Matsuya F, Saito Y. Elevated blood concentrations of cyclosporine and kidney failure after bezafibrate in renal graft recipient. Ann Pharmacother, 1996, 30;883-884. (letter).

401.  Broeders N, Knoop C, Antoine M, Tielemans C, Abramowicz D. Fibrate-induced increase in blood urea and creatinine: Is gemfibrozil the only inonocuous agent?. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2000, 15;1993-1999.

402.  Devuyst O, Goffin E, Pirson Y, van Ypersele de Strihou C. Creatinine rise after fibrate therapy in renal graft recipients. Lancet, 1993, 341;840.

403.  Rössner S, Orö L. Fenofibrate therapy of hyperlipoproteinaemia. A dose-response study and a comparison with clofibrate. Atherosclerosis, 1981, 38;273-282.

404.  Rouffy J, Chanu B, Bakir R, Djian F, Goy-Loeper J. Comparative evaluation of the effects of ciprofibrate and fenofibrate on lipids, lipoproteins and apoproteins A and B. Atherosclerosis, 1985, 54;273-281.

405.  deLorgeril M, Boissonnat P, Bizollon CA, et al. Pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in hyperlipidaemic long-term survivors of heart transplantation. Lack of interaction with the lipid-lowering agent, fenofibrate. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 1992, 43;161-165.

406.  Boissonnat P, Salen P, Guidollet J, et al. The long-term effects of the lipid-lowering agent fenobibrate in hyperlipidemic heart transplant recipients. Transplantation, 1994, 58;245-247.

407.  Ellen RL, McPherson R. Long-term efficacy and safety of fenofibrate and a statin in the treatment of combined hyperlipidemia. Am J Cardiol, 1998, 81;60B-65B.

408.  Hottelart C, el Esper N, Achard JM, Pruna A, Fournier A. [Fenofibrate increases blood creatinine, but does not change the glomerular filtration rate in patients with mild renal insufficiency]. Nephrologie, 1999, 20;41-44.

409.  Dierkes J, Westphal S, Luley C. Serum homocysteine increases after therapy with fenofibrate or bezafibrate. Lancet, 1999, 354;219-220.

410.  Lipscombe J, Lewis GF, Cattran D, Bargman JM. Deterioration in renal function associated with fibrate therapy. Clin Nephrol, 2001, 55;39-44.

411.  Gibbons LW, Gonzalez V, Gordon N, Grundy S. The prevalence of side effects with regular and sustained-release nicotinic acid. Am J Med, 1995, 99;378-385.

412.  Morgan JM, Capuzzi DM, Guyton JR. A new extended-release niacin (Niaspan): Efficacy, tolerability, and safety in hypercholesterolemic patients. Am J Cardiol, 1998, 82;29U-34U.

413.  Gokal R, Mann JI, Oliver DO, Ledingham JGG, Carter RD. Treatment of hyperlipidaemia in patients on chronic haemodialysis. BMJ, 1978, 1;82-83.

414.  Spratt P, Esmore D, Keogh A, Chang V. Comparison of three immunosuppressive protocols in cardiac transplantation. Transplant Proc, 1989, 21;2481-2483.

415.  Chen HH, Lin LH. Recurrent pancreatitis secondary to type V hyperlipidemia: Report of one case. Acta Paediatr Taiwan, 2000, 41;276-278.

416.  Colletti RB, Neufeld EJ, Roff NK, McAuliffe TL, Baker AL, Newburger JW. Niacin treatment of hypercholesterolemia in children. Pediatrics, 1993, 92;78-82.

417.  Steinmetz J, Morin C, Panek E, Siest G, Drouin P. Biological variations in hyperlipidemic children and adolescents treated with fenofibrate. Clin Chim Acta, 1981, 112;43.

418.  Chicaud P, Demange J, Drouin P, Debry G. [Action of fenofibrate in hypercholesterolemic children. 18-month follow-up]. Presse Med, 1984, 13;417-419.

419.  Wheeler KA, West RJ, Lloyd JK, Barley J. Double blind trial of bezafibrate in familial hypercholesterolaemia. Arch Dis Child, 1985, 60;34-37.

420.  Kwiterovich PO Jr. Diagnosis and management of familial dyslipoproteinemia in children and adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am, 1990, 37;1489-1523.

421.  Enos WF, Holmes RH, Beyer J. Coronary artery disease among United States soldiers killed in action in Korea. JAMA, 1953, 152;1090-1093.

422.  McGill HC Jr, McMahan CA, Herderick EE, et al. Effects of coronary heart disease risk factors on atherosclerosis of selected regions of the aorta and right coronary artery. PDAY Research Group. Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2000, 20;836-845.

423.  Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP III, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA. Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med, 1998, 338;1650-1656.

424.  Järvisalo MJ, Jartti L, Näntö-Salonen K, et al. Increased aortic intima-media thickness: A marker of preclinical atherosclerosis in high-risk children. Circulation, 2001, 104;2943-2947.

425.  Kwiterovich PO Jr, Barton BA, McMahon RP, et al. Effects of diet and sexual maturation on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol during puberty: The Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). Circulation, 1997, 96;2526-2533.

426.  Niinikoski H, Viikari J, Ronnemaa T, et al. Regulation of growth of 7- to 36-month-old children by energy and fat intake in the prospective, randomized STRIP baby trial. Pediatrics, 1997, 100;810-816.

427.  Niinikoski H, Koskinen P, Punnonen K, et al. Intake and indicators of iron and zinc status in children consuming diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol: The STRIP baby study. Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project for Babies. Am J Clin Nutr, 1997, 66;569-574.

428.  Niinikoski H, Lapinleimu H, Viikari J, et al. Growth until 3 years of age in a prospective, randomized trial of a diet with reduced saturated fat and cholesterol. Pediatrics, 1997, 99;687-694.

429.  Lambert M, Lupien PJ, Gagne C, et al. Treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia in children and adolescents: Effect of lovastatin. Canadian Lovastatin in Children Study Group. Pediatrics, 1996, 97;619-628.

430.  Knipscheer HC, Boelen CC, Kastelein JJ, et al. Short-term efficacy and safety of pravastatin in 72 children with familial hypercholesterolemia. Pediatr Res, 1996, 39;867-871.

431.  Couture P, Brun LD, Szots F, et al. Association of specific LDL receptor gene mutations with differential plasma lipoprotein response to simvastatin in young French Canadians with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 1998, 18;1007-1012.

432.  Vohl MC, Szots F, Lelie’vre M, et al. Influence of LDL receptor gene mutation and apo E polymorphism on lipoprotein response to simvastatin treatment among adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis, 2002, 160;361-368.

433.  Stefanutti C, Lucani G, Vivenzio A, Di Giacomo S. Diet only and diet plus simvastatin in the treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in childhood. Drugs Exp Clin Res, 1999, 25;23-28.

434.  Coleman JE, Watson AR. Hyperlipidaemia, diet and simvastatin therapy in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome of childhood. Pediatr Nephrol, 1996, 10;171-174.

435.  Sanjad SA, al Abbad A, al Shorafa S. Management of hyperlipidemia in children with refractory nephrotic syndrome: the effect of statin therapy. J Pediatr, 1997, 130;470-474.

436.  Kano K, Hoshi E, Ito S, et al. Effects of combination therapy consisting of moderate-dose intravenous immunoglobulin G, pulsed methylprednisolone and pravastatin in children with steroid-resistant nephrosis. Nephron, 2000, 84;99-100.

437.  McCrindle BW, O’Neill MB, Cullen-Dean G, Helden E. Acceptability and compliance with two forms of cholestyramine in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in children: a randomized, crossover trial. J Pediatr, 1997, 130;266-273.

438.  West RJ, Lloyd JK, Leonard JV. Long-term follow-up of children with familial hypercholesterolaemia treated with cholestyramine. Lancet, 1980, 2;873-875.

439.  West RJ, Lloyd JK. The effect of cholestyramine on intestinal absorption. Gut, 1975, 16;93-98.

440.  Schwarz KB, Goldstein PD, Witztum JL, Schonfeld G. Fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in hypercholesterolemic children treated with colestipol. Pediatrics, 1980, 65;243-250.

441.  Schlierf G, Vogel G, Kohlmeier M, Vuilleumier JP, Huppe R, Schmidt-Gayk H. [Long-term therapy of familial hypercholesterolemia in young patients with colestipol: availability of minerals and vitamins]. Klin Wochenschr, 1985, 63;802-806.

442.  Marcucci R, Zanazzi M, Bertoni E, et al. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in renal transplant recipients: new insights. Transplant Int, 2000, 13;S419-S424.

443.  Stein EA, Illingworth DR, Kwiterovich PO Jr, et al. Efficacy and safety of lovastatin in adolescent males with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 1999, 281;137-144.

444.  Knipscheer HC, Boelen CC, Kastelein JJ, et al. Short-term efficacy and safety of pravastatin in 72 children with familial hypercholesterolemia. Pediatr Res, 1996, 39;867-871.

445.  Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Task Force Report on the Periodic Health Examination. Can Med Assoc J, 1979, 121;1193-1254.

446.  National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guidelines for nutrition in chronic renal failure. KDOQI. Am J Kidney Dis, 2000, 35;S1-S140.

447.   In Bowes AdP (revised by Pennington JAT): Bowes & Church’s Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA 1998, 1-481.

448.  Gylling H, Siimes MA, Miettinen TA. Sitostanol ester margarine in dietary treatment of children with familial hypercholesterolemia. J Lipid Res, 1995, 36;1807-1812.

449.  Williams CL, Bollella MC, Strobino BA, Boccia L, Campanaro L. Plant stanol ester and bran fiber in childhood: effects on lipids, stool weight and stool frequency in preschool children. J Am Coll Nutr, 1999, 18;572-581.

450.  Miettinen TA, Puska P, Gylling H, Vanhanen H, Vartiainen E. Reduction of serum cholesterol with sitostanol-ester margarine in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. N Engl J Med, 1995, 333;1308-1312.

451.  Weststrate JA, Meijer GW. Plant sterol-enriched margarines and reduction of plasma total- and LDL- cholesterol concentrations in normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr, 1998, 52;334-343.

452.  Hallikainen MA, Sarkkinen ES, Uusitupa MI. Plant stanol esters affect serum cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men and women in a dose-dependent manner. J Nutr, 2000, 130;767-776.


© 2003 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.