KDOQI (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative)


NKF KDOQI GUIDELINES

Executive Summaries | Anemia | Hemodialysis | Peritoneal Dialysis |
Vascular Access | Nutrition | CKD 2002 | Dyslipidemias | Bone Metabolism | Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents | Cardiovascular Disease in Dialysis Patients | History of K/DOQ | Pediatric Bone |

KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bone Metabolism and Disease in Children With Chronic Kidney Disease


References

1. Bachrach LK: Acquisition of optimal bone mass in childhood and adolescence. Trends Endocrinol Metab 12:22-28, 2001

2. Klaus G, Jux C, Leiber K, Hugel U, Mehls O: Interaction between insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, parathyroid hormone, 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and steroids on epiphyseal chondrocytes. Acta Paediatr Suppl 417:69-71, 1996

3. Langman CB, Mazur AT, Baron R, Norman ME: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcifediol) therapy of juvenile renal osteodystrophy: beneficial effect on linear growth velocity. J Pediatr 100:815-820, 1982

4. Krempien B, Mehls O, Ritz E: Morphological studies on pathogenesis of epiphyseal slipping in uremic children. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histol 362:129-143, 1974

5. Schober HC, Han ZH, Foldes AJ, Shih MS, Rao DS, Balena R, Parfitt AM: Mineralized bone loss at different sites in dialysis patients: implications for prevention. J Am Soc Nephrol 9:1225-1233, 1998

6. National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation, Classification and Stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 39:S1-S000, 2002 (suppl 1)

7. Manjunath G, Sarnak MJ, Levey AS: Estimating the glomerular filtration rate. Dos and don'ts for assessing kidney function. Postgrad Med. Dec;110:55-62, 2001

8. Malluche HH, Faugere MC: Effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 administration on bone in patients with renal failure. Kidney Int Suppl 29:S48-S53, 1990

9. Malluche H, Faugere MC: Renal bone disease 1990: an unmet challenge for the nephrologist. Kidney Int 38:193-211, 1990

10. Hamdy NA, Kanis JA, Beneton MN, Brown CB, Juttmann JR, Jordans JG, Josse S, Meyrier A, Lins RL, Fairey IT: Effect of alfacalcidol on natural course of renal bone disease in mild to moderate renal failure. BMJ 310:358-363, 1995

11. Goodman WG, Coburn JW: The use of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in early renal failure. Annu Rev Med 43:227-237, 1992

12. de Caestecker MP, Bottomley M, Telfer BA, Hutchinson IV, Vose BM, Ballardie FW: Detection of abnormal peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine networks in human IgA nephropathy. Kidney Int 44:1298-1308, 1993

13. Feldman HI, Held PJ, Hutchinson JT, Stoiber E, Hartigan MF, Berlin JA: Hemodialysis vascular access morbidity in the United States. Kidney Int 43:1091-1096, 1993

14. Hutchison AJ, Whitehouse RW, Boulton HF, Adams JE, Mawer EB, Freemont TJ, Gokal R: Correlation of bone histology with parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and radiology in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 44:1071-1077, 1993

15. Gerakis A, Hutchison AJ, Apostolou T, Freemont AJ, Billis A: Biochemical markers for non-invasive diagnosis of hyperparathyroid bone disease and adynamic bone in patients on haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:2430-2438, 1996

16. Quigg RJ, Brathwaite M, Gardner DF, Gretch DR, Ruddy S: Successful cyclophosphamide treatment of cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Am J Kidney Dis 25:798-800, 1995

17. Qi Q, Monier-Faugere MC, Geng Z, Malluche HH: Predictive value of serum parathyroid hormone levels for bone turnover in patients on chronic maintenance dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 26:622-631, 1995

18. Block GA, Port FK: Re-evaluation of risks associated with hyperphosphatemia and hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients: recommendations for a change in management. Am J Kidney Dis 35:1226-1237, 2000

19. Urena P, Ferreira A, Kung VT, Morieux C, Simon P, Ang KS, Souberbielle JC, Segre GV, Drueke TB, De Vernejoul MC: Serum pyridinoline as a specific marker of collagen breakdown and bone metabolism in hemodialysis patients. J Bone Miner Res 10:932-939, 1995

20. Norman ME, Mazur AT, Borden S 4th, Gruskin A, Anast C, Baron R, Rasmussen H: Early diagnosis of juvenile renal osteodystrophy. J Pediatr 97:226-232, 1980

21. Martinez I, Saracho R, Montenegro J, Llach F: The importance of dietary calcium and phosphorous in the secondary hyperparathyroidism of patients with early renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 29:496-502, 1997

22. Salusky IB, Ramirez JA, Oppenheim W, Gales B, Segre GV, Goodman WG: Biochemical markers of renal osteodystrophy in pediatric patients undergoing CAPD/CCPD. Kidney Int 45:253-258, 1994

23. Mathias R, Salusky I, Harman W, Paredes A, Emans J, Segre G, Goodman W: Renal bone disease in pediatric and young adult patients on hemodialysis in a children's hospital. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:1938-1946, 1993

24. Ziolkowska H, Paniczyk-Tomaszewska M, Debinski A, Polowiec Z, Sawicki A, Sieniawska M: Bone biopsy results and serum bone turnover parameters in uremic children. Acta Paediatr 89:666-671, 2000

25. Solal ME, Sebert JL, Boudailliez B, Marie A, Moriniere P, Gueris J, Bouillon R, Fournier A: Comparison of intact, midregion, and carboxy terminal assays of parathyroid hormone for the diagnosis of bone disease in hemodialyzed patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:516-524, 1991

26. Wang M, Hercz G, Sherrard DJ, Maloney NA, Segre GV, Pei Y: Relationship between intact 1-84 parathyroid hormone and bone histomorphometric parameters in dialysis patients without aluminum toxicity. Am J Kidney Dis 26:836-844, 1995

27. Huraib S, Souqqiyeh MZ, Aswad S, al-Swailem AR: Pattern of renal osteodystrophy in haemodialysis patients in Saudi Arabia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8:603-608, 1993

28. DeVita MV, Rasenas LL, Bansal M, Gleim GW, Zabetakis PM, Gardenswartz MH, Michelis MF: Assessment of renal osteodystrophy in hemodialysis patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 71:284-290, 1992

29. Eastwood JB: Quantitative bone histology in 38 patients with advanced renal failure. J Clin Pathol 35:125-134, 1982

30. Hasselblad V, Hedges LV: Meta-analysis of screening and diagnostic tests. Psychol Bull 117:167-178, 1995

31. World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis and trends in Europe and USA. Nippon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine Feb;62:235-239, 2004 (Suppl 2)

32. Leonard MB, Feldman HI, Zemel BS, Berlin JA, Barden EM, Stallings VA: Evaluation of low density spine software for the assessment of bone mineral density in children. J Bone Miner Res 13:1687-1690, 1998

33. Leonard MB, Propert KJ, Zemel BS, Stallings VA, Feldman HI: Discrepancies in pediatric bone mineral density reference data: potential for misdiagnosis of osteopenia. J Pediatr 135:182-188, 1999

34. Molgaard C, Thomsen BL, Prentice A, Cole TJ, Michaelsen KF: Whole body bone mineral content in healthy children and adolescents. Arch Dis Child 76:9-15, 1997

35. Klaus G, Paschen C, Wuster C, Kovacs GT, Barden J, Mehls O, Scharer K: Weight-/height-related bone mineral density is not reduced after renal transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol 12:343-348, 1998

36. Kim MS, Kim YS, Lim SK, Kim SI, Moon JI, Park K: Effect of deflazacort on bone mineral density in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 30:3041-3042, 1998

37. Hurst G, Alloway R, Hathaway D, Somerville T, Hughes T, Gaber A: Stabilization of bone mass after renal transplant with preemptive care. Transplant Proc 30:1327-1328, 1998

38. Aroldi A, Tarantino A, Montagnino G, Cesana B, Cocucci C, Ponticelli C: Effects of three immunosuppressive regimens on vertebral bone density in renal transplant recipients: a prospective study. Transplantation 63:380-386, 1997

39. Pichette V, Bonnardeaux A, Prudhomme L, Gagne M, Cardinal J, Ouimet D: Long-term bone loss in kidney transplant recipients: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Am J Kidney Dis 28:105-114, 1996

40. Setterberg L, Sandberg J, Elinder CG, Nordenstrom J: Bone demineralization after renal transplantation: contribution of secondary hyperparathyroidism manifested by hypercalcaemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:1825-1828, 1996

41. Yazawa K, Ishikawa T, Ichikawa Y, Shin J, Usui Y, Hanafusa T, Fukunishi T, Sakai R, Nagano S, Fujita N, Mizuno K: Positive effects of kidney transplantation on bone mass. Transplant Proc 30:3031-3033, 1998

42. Torres A, Lorenzo V, Gonzalez-Posada JM: Comparison of histomorphometry and computerized tomography of the spine in quantitating trabecular bone in renal osteodystrophy. Nephron 44:282-287, 1986

43. Glorieux FH, Travers R, Taylor A, Bowen JR, Rauch F, Norman M, Parfitt AM: Normative data for iliac bone histomorphometry in growing children. Bone 26:103-109, 2000

44. Mehls O, Ritz E, Gilli G, Kreusser W: Growth in renal failure. Nephron 21:237-247, 1978

45. Castaneda C, Gordon PL, Uhlin KL, Levey AS, Kehayias JJ, Dwyer JT, Fielding RA, Roubenoff R, Singh MF: Resistance training to counteract the catabolism of a low-protein diet in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 135:965-976, 2001

46. Davids JR, Fisher R, Lum G, Von Glinski S: Angular deformity of the lower extremity in children with renal osteodystrophy. J Pediatr Orthop 12:291-299, 1992

47. Oppenheim WL, Fischer SR, Salusky IB: Surgical correction of angular deformity of the knee in children with renal osteodystrophy. J Pediatr Orthop 17:41-49, 1997

48. Apel DM, Millar EA, Moel DI: Skeletal disorders in a pediatric renal transplant population. J Pediatr Orthop 9:505-511, 1989

49. Barrett IR, Papadimitriou DG: Skeletal disorders in children with renal failure. J Pediatr Orthop 16:264-272, 1996

50. Beskin JL, Burke SW, Johnston CE 2nd, Roberts JM: Clinical basis for a mechanical etiology in adolescent Blount's disease. Orthopedics 9:365-370, 1986

51. Blockey NJ, Murphy AV, Mocan H: Management of rachitic deformities in children with chronic renal failure. J Bone Joint Surg Br 68:791-794, 1986

52. Evans GA, Arulanantham K, Gage JR: Primary hypophosphatemic rickets. Effect of oral phosphate and vitamin D on growth and surgical treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am 62:1130-1138, 1980

53. Fine RN, Isaacson AS, Payne V, Grushkin CM: Renal osteodystrophy in children: the effect of hemodialysis and renal homotransplantation. J Pediatr 80:243-249, 1972

54. Mehls O, Ritz E, Oppermann HC, Guignard JP: Femoral head necrosis in uremic children without steroid treatment or transplantation. J Pediatr 99:926-929, 1981

55. Rubinovitch M, Said SE, Glorieux FH, Cruess RL, Rogala E: Principles and results of corrective lower limb osteotomies for patients with vitamin D-resistant hypophosphatemic rickets. Clin Orthop:264-270, 1988

56. Salenius P, Vankka E: The development of the tibiofemoral angle in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 57:259-261, 1975

57. Loder RT, Hensinger RN: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis associated with renal failure osteodystrophy. J Pediatr Orthop 17:205-211, 1997

58. Mehls O, Ritz E, Krempien B, Gilli G, Link K, Willich E, Scharer K: Slipped epiphyses in renal osteodystrophy. Arch Dis Child 50:545-554, 1975

59. Swierstra BA, Diepstraten AF, vd Heyden BJ: Distal femoral physiolysis in renal osteodystrophy. Successful nonoperative treatment of 3 cases followed for 5 years. Acta Orthop Scand 64:382-384, 1993

60. Tebor GB, Ehrlich MG, Herrin J: Slippage of the distal tibial epiphysis. J Pediatr Orthop 3:211-215, 1983

61. Hartjen CA, Koman LA: Treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis resulting from juvenile renal osteodystrophy. J Pediatr Orthop 10:551-554, 1990

62. Oppenheim WL, Bowen RE, McDonough PW, Funahashi TT, Salusky IB: Outcome of slipped capital femoral epiphysis in renal osteodystrophy. J Pediatr Orthop 23:169-174, 2003

63. Boechat MI, Winters WD, Hogg RJ, Fine RN, Watkins SL: Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children with chronic renal disease. Radiology 218:411-413, 2001

64. Watkins SL: Bone disease in patients receiving growth hormone. Kidney Int Suppl 53:S126-S127, 1996

65. Harrington KD, Murray WR, Kountz SL, Belzer FO: Avascular necrosis of bone after renal transplantation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 53:203-215, 1971

66. Ibels LS, Alfrey AC, Huffer WE, Weil R 3rd: Aseptic necrosis of bone following renal transplantation: experience in 194 transplant recipients and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 57:25-45, 1978

67. Stern PJ, Watts HG: Osteonecrosis after renal transplantation in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 61:851-856, 1979

68. Davidson JK, Tsakiris D, Briggs JD, Junor BJ: Osteonecrosis and fractures following renal transplantation. Clin Radiol 36:27-35, 1985

69. Murray WR: Hip problems associated with organ transplants. Clin Orthop 90:57-69, 1973

70. Brodehl J, Gellissen K, Weber HP: Postnatal development of tubular phosphate reabsorption. Clin Nephrol 17:163-171, 1982

71. Burritt MF, Slockbower JM, Forsman RW, Offord KP, Bergstralh EJ, Smithson WA: Pediatric reference intervals for 19 biologic variables in healthy children. Mayo Clin Proc 65:329-336, 1990

72. Arnaud SB, Goldsmith RS, Stickler GB, McCall JT, Arnaud CD: Serum parathyroid hormone and blood minerals: interrelationships in normal children. Pediatr Res 7:485-493, 1973

73. Greenberg BG, Winters RW, Graham JB: The normal range of serum inorganic phosphorus and its utility as a discriminant in the diagnosis of congenital hypophosphatemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 20:364-379, 1960

74. Portale AA, Booth BE, Halloran BP, Morris RC Jr: Effect of dietary phosphorus on circulating concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone in children with moderate renal insufficiency. J Clin Invest 73:1580-1589, 1984

75. Portale AA, Halloran BP, Morris RC Jr: Dietary intake of phosphorus modulates the circadian rhythm in serum concentration of phosphorus. Implications for the renal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. J Clin Invest 80:1147-1154, 1987

76. Markowitz ME, Rosen JF, Laxminarayan S, Mizruchi M: Circadian rhythms of blood minerals during adolescence. Pediatr Res 18:456-462, 1984

77. Naveh-Many T, Rahamimov R, Livni N, Silver J: Parathyroid cell proliferation in normal and chronic renal failure rats. The effects of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. J Clin Invest 96:1786-1793, 1995

78. Slatopolsky E, Finch J, Denda M, Ritter C, Zhong M, Dusso A, MacDonald PN, Brown AJ: Phosphorus restriction prevents parathyroid gland growth. High phosphorus directly stimulates PTH secretion in vitro. J Clin Invest 97:2534-2540, 1996

79. Kimura K, Saika Y, Otani H, Fujii R, Mune M, Yukawa S: Factors associated with calcification of the abdominal aorta in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int Suppl 71:S238-S241, 1999

80. Goodman WG, Goldin J, Kuizon BD, Yoon C, Gales B, Sider D, Wang Y, Chung J, Emerick A, Greaser L, Elashoff RM, Salusky IB: Coronary-artery calcification in young adults with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing dialysis. N Engl J Med 342:1478-1483, 2000

81. Mazhar AR, Johnson RJ, Gillen D, Stivelman JC, Ryan MJ, Davis CL, Stehman-Breen CO: Risk factors and mortality associated with calciphylaxis in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 60:324-332, 2001

82. Ahmed S, O'Neill KD, Hood AF, Evan AP, Moe SM: Calciphylaxis is associated with hyperphosphatemia and increased osteopontin expression by vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Kidney Dis 37:1267-1276, 2001

83. Marchais SJ, Metivier F, Guerin AP, London GM: Association of hyperphosphataemia with haemodynamic disturbances in end-stage renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 14:2178-2183, 1999

84. Guerin AP, London GM, Marchais SJ, Metivier F: Arterial stiffening and vascular calcifications in end-stage renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 15:1014-1021, 2000

85. Block GA, Hulbert-Shearon TE, Levin NW, Port FK: Association of serum phosphorus and calcium x phosphate product with mortality risk in chronic hemodialysis patients: a national study. Am J Kidney Dis 31:607-617, 1998

86. Lowrie EG, Lew NL: Death risk in hemodialysis patients: the predictive value of commonly measured variables and an evaluation of death rate differences between facilities. Am J Kidney Dis 15:458-482, 1990

87. Blacher J, Guerin AP, Pannier B, Marchais SJ, London GM: Arterial calcifications, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular risk in end-stage renal disease. Hypertension 38:938-942, 2001

88. Ganesh SK, Stack AG, Levin NW, Hulbert-Shearon T, Port FK: Association of elevated serum PO(4), Ca x PO(4) product, and parathyroid hormone with cardiac mortality risk in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 12:2131-2138, 2001

89. Jono S, McKee MD, Murry CE, Shioi A, Nishizawa Y, Mori K, Morii H, Giachelli CM: Phosphate regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. Circ Res 87:E10-E17, 2000

90. Rostand SG, Sanders C, Kirk KA, Rutsky EA, Fraser RG: Myocardial calcification and cardiac dysfunction in chronic renal failure. Am J Med 85:651-657, 1988

91. Katz AI, Hampers CL, Merrill JP: Secondary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy in chronic renal failure. Analysis of 195 patients, with observations on the effects of chronic dialysis, kidney transplantation and subtotal parathyroidectomy. Medicine (Baltimore) 48:333-374, 1969

92. Raggi P, Reinmuller R, Chertow GM: Cardiac calcification is prevalent and severe in ESRD patients as measured by electron beam CT scanning. J Am Soc Nephrol Abstract A0405:75A, 2000

93. Oh J, Wunsch R, Turzer M, Bahner M, Raggi P, Querfeld U, Mehls O, Schaefer F: Advanced coronary and carotid arteriopathy in young adults with childhood-onset chronic renal failure. Circulation 106:100-105, 2002

94. Greene SV, Falciglia G, Rademacher R: Relationship between serum phosphorus levels and various outcome measures in adult hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr 8:77-82, 1998

95. Greenbaum LA: Pathophysiology of Body Fluids and Fluid Therapy, 17th ed. Philadelphia, PA, Elsevier Science, 2004

96. Portale AA, Booth BE, Tsai HC, Morris RC, Jr.: Reduced plasma concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in children with moderate renal insufficiency. Kidney Int 21:627-632, 1982

97. Massry SG, Coburn JW, Popovtzer MM, Shinaberger JH, Maxwell MH, Kleeman CR: Secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure. The clinical spectrum in uremia, during hemodialysis, and after renal transplantation. Arch Intern Med 124:431-441, 1969

98. Llach F, Massry SG, Singer FR, Kurokawa K, Kaye JH, Coburn JW: Skeletal resistance to endogenous parathyroid hormone in patients with early renal failure. A possible cause for secondary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41:339-345, 1975

99. von Lilienfeld-Toal H, Gerlach I, Klehr HU, Issa S, Keck E: Immunoreactive parathyroid hormone in early and advanced renal failure. Nephron 31:116-122, 1982

100. Llach F, Massry SG: On the mechanism of secondary hyperparathyroidism in moderate renal insufficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 61:601-606, 1985

101. Wilson L, Felsenfeld A, Drezner MK, Llach F: Altered divalent ion metabolism in early renal failure: role of 1,25(OH)2D. Kidney Int 27:565-573, 1985

102. Tessitore N, Venturi A, Adami S, Roncari C, Rugiu C, Corgnati A, Bonucci E, Maschio G: Relationship between serum vitamin D metabolites and dietary intake of phosphate in patients with early renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab 13:38-44, 1987

103. Pitts TO, Piraino BH, Mitro R, Chen TC, Segre GV, Greenberg A, Puschett JB: Hyperparathyroidism and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D deficiency in mild, moderate, and severe renal failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67:876-881, 1988

104. Malluche HH, Ritz E, Lange HP, Kutschera L, Hodgson M, Seiffert U, Schoeppe W: Bone histology in incipient and advanced renal failure. Kidney Int 9:355-362, 1976

105. Hodson EM, Evans RA, Dunstan CR, Hills EE, Shaw PF: Quantitative bone histology in children with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 21:833-839, 1982

106. Friis T, Hahnemann S, Weeke E: Serum calcium and serum phosphorus in uraemia during administration of sodium phytate and aluminium hydroxide. Acta Med Scand 183:497-505, 1968

107. Coburn JW, Koppel MH, Brickman AS, Massry SG: Study of intestinal absorption of calcium in patients with renal failure. Kidney Int 3:264-272, 1973

108. Taylor A, Norman ME: Interrelationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in juvenile renal osteodystrophy after therapy with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Metab Bone Dis Relat Res 4:255-261, 1982

109. Chesney RW, Hamstra AJ, Mazess RB, Rose P, DeLuca HF: Circulating vitamin D metabolite concentrations in childhood renal diseases. Kidney Int 21:65-69, 1982

110. Mason RS, Lissner D, Wilkinson M, Posen S: Vitamin D metabolites and their relationship to azotaemic osteodystrophy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 13:375-385, 1980

111. Christiansen C, Christensen MS, Melsen F, Rodbro P, DeLuca HF: Mineral metabolism in chronic renal failure with special reference to serum concentrations of 1.25(OH)2D and 24.25(OH)2D. Clin Nephrol 15:18-22, 1981

112. Juttmann JR, Visser TJ, Buurman C, de Kam E, Birkenhager JC: Seasonal fluctuations in serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in normal subjects. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 282:1349-1352, 1981

113. Tessitore N, Lund B, Bonucci E, Sorensen OH, Maschio G: Vitamin D metabolites in early renal failure. Minerva Nefrol 28:293-297, 1981

114. Cheung AK, Manolagas SC, Catherwood BD, Mosely CA Jr, Mitas JA 2nd, Blantz RC, Deftos LJ: Determinants of serum 1,25(OH)2D levels in renal disease. Kidney Int 24:104-109, 1983

115. Lucas PA, Brown RC, Bloodworth L, Jones CR, Woodhead JS: Effects of chronic renal failure, renal transplantation and unilateral nephrectomy on 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. Berlin, Walter de Gruyter, 1985

116. Prince RL, Hutchison BG, Kent JC, Kent GN, Retallack RW: Calcitriol deficiency with retained synthetic reserve in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 33:722-728, 1988

117. Ishimura E, Nishizawa Y, Inaba M, Matsumoto N, Emoto M, Kawagishi T, Shoji S, Okuno S, Kim M, Miki T, Morii H: Serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 55:1019-1027, 1999

118. Turner C, Compston J, Mak RH, Vedi S, Mellish RW, Haycock GB, Chantler C: Bone turnover and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol during treatment with phosphate binders. Kidney Int 33:989-995, 1988

119. Tenenhouse HS, Murer H: Disorders of Renal Tubular Phosphate Transport. J Am Soc Nephrol 14:240-247, 2003

120. Martinez I et al Am J: The importance of dietary calcium and phosphorous in the secondary hyperparathyroidism of patients with early renal failure.Kidney Dis 29:496-502,1997

121. Klahr S, Levey AS, Beck GJ, Caggiula AW, Hunsicker L, Kusek JW, Striker G: The effects of dietary protein restriction and blood-pressure control on the progression of chronic renal disease. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. N Engl J Med 330:877-884, 1994

122. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study: design, methods, and results from the feasibility study. Am J Kidney Dis 20:18-33, 1992

123. Malvy D, Maingourd C, Pengloan J, Bagros P, Nivet H: Effects of severe protein restriction with ketoanalogues in advanced renal failure. J Am Coll Nutr 18:481-486, 1999

124. Wingen AM, Fabian-Bach C, Schaefer F, Mehls O: Randomised multicentre study of a low-protein diet on the progression of chronic renal failure in children. European Study Group of Nutritional Treatment of Chronic Renal Failure in Childhood. Lancet 349:1117-1123, 1997

125. Herselman MG, Albertse EC, Lombard CJ, Swanepoel CR, Hough FS: Supplemented low-protein diets–are they superior in chronic renal failure? S Afr Med J 85:361-365, 1995

126. D'Amico G, Gentile MG, Fellin G, Manna G, Cofano F: Effect of dietary protein restriction on the progression of renal failure: a prospective randomized trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9:1590-1594, 1994

127. Dullaart RP, Beusekamp BJ, Meijer S, van Doormaal JJ, Sluiter WJ: Long-term effects of protein-restricted diet on albuminuria and renal function in IDDM patients without clinical nephropathy and hypertension. Diabetes Care 16:483-492, 1993

128. Kist-van Holthe tot Echten JE, Nauta J, Hop WC, de Jong MC, Reitsma-Bierens WC, Ploos van Amstel SL, van Acker KJ, Noordzij CM, Wolff ED: Protein restriction in chronic renal failure. Arch Dis Child 68:371-375, 1993

129. Williams PS, Stevens ME, Fass G, Irons L, Bone JM: Failure of dietary protein and phosphate restriction to retard the rate of progression of chronic renal failure: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Q J Med 81:837-855, 1991

130. Locatelli F, Alberti D, Graziani G, Buccianti G, Redaelli B, Giangrande A: Prospective, randomised, multicentre trial of effect of protein restriction on progression of chronic renal insufficiency. Northern Italian Cooperative Study Group. Lancet 337:1299-1304, 1991

131. Zeller K, Whittaker E, Sullivan L, Raskin P, Jacobson HR: Effect of restricting dietary protein on the progression of renal failure in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 324:78-84, 1991

132. Forget D, Caranhac G, Quillot MJ, Besnier MO: Compliance with very low protein diet and ketoanalogues in chronic renal failure. The French Multicentric Trial IRCCA. Contrib Nephrol 81:79-86, 1990

133. Ihle BU, Becker GJ, Whitworth JA, Charlwood RA, Kincaid-Smith PS: The effect of protein restriction on the progression of renal insufficiency. N Engl J Med 321:1773-1777, 1989

134. Mahmoud MD, Bouche V, Collin P, Girault A: Effects of keto-analogues on phosphocalcic and aminoacid metabolism in dialysed patients: a crossover study. Int J Artif Organs 12:692-696, 1989

135. Ando A, Orita Y, Nakata K, Fukuhara Y, Mikami H, Fujii M, Nakajima Y, Ueda N, Abe H: The effect of essential amino acid supplementation therapy on prognosis of patients with chronic renal failure estimated on the basis of the Markov process. Med J Osaka Univ 32:31-37, 1981

136. Barsotti G, Lazzeri M, Polloni A, Morelli E, Giovannetti E, Lupetti S, Cupisti A, Dani L, Giovannetti S: Effects of the impairment of renal function and of the pH of gastric secretion on the efficacy of Al(OH)3 to reduce serum inorganic phosphorus. Adv Exp Med Biol 208:493-499, 1986

137. Meisinger E, Strauch M: Controlled trial of two keto acid supplements on renal function, nutritional status, and bone metabolism in uremic patients. Kidney Int Suppl 22:S170-S173, 1987

138. Schmicker R, Vetter K, Lindenau K, Frohling PT, Kokot F: Conservative long-term treatment of chronic renal failure with keto acid and amino acid supplementation. Infusionsther Klin Ernahr 14:34-38, 1987 (suppl 5)

139. Gentile MG, Manna GM, Ferrario L, D'Amico G: Preliminary experience on dietary management of chronic renal failure. Contrib Nephrol 53:102-108, 1986

140. Drueke TB: Primary and secondary uraemic hyperparathyroidism: from initial clinical observations to recent findings. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:1384-1387, 1998

141. Recker RR, Saville PD: Calcium absorption in renal failure: its relationship to blood urea nitrogen, dietary calcium intake, time on dialysis, and other variables. J Lab Clin Med 78:380-388, 1971

142. Hosking DJ, Chamberlain MJ: Calcium balance in chronic renal failure. A study using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Q J Med 42:467-479, 1973

143. Popovtzer MM, Massry SG, Makoff DL, Maxwell MH, Kleeman CR: Renal handling of phosphate in patients with chronic renal failure. The role of variations in serum phosphorus and parathyroid activity. Isr J Med Sci 5:1018-1023, 1969

144. Suzuki M, Hirasawa Y: Renal osteodystrophy in early chronic renal failure. Contrib Nephrol 22:28-38, 1980

145. Better OS, Kleeman CR, Gonick HC, Varrady PD, Maxwell MH: Renal handling of calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphate in chronic renal failure. Isr J Med Sci 3:60-79, 1967

146. Cochran M, Bulusu L, Horsman A, Stasiak L, Nordin BE: Hypocalcaemia and bone disease in renal failure. Nephron 10:113-140, 1973

147. Duursma SA, Visser WJ, Mees EJ, Njio L: Serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase and morphometric bone examinations in 30 patients with renal insufficiency. Calcif Tissue Res 16:129-138, 1974

148. London GM, Pannier B, Marchais SJ, Guerin AP: Calcification of the aortic valve in the dialyzed patient. J Am Soc Nephrol 11:778-783, 2000

149. Milas NC, Nowalk MP, Akpele L, Castaldo L, Coyne T, Doroshenko L, Kigawa L, Korzec-Ramirez D, Scherch LK, Snetselaar L: Factors associated with adherence to the dietary protein intervention in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. J Am Diet Assoc 95:1295-1300, 1995

150. Foret M, Renversez JC, Meftahi H, Kuentz F, Milongo R, Hachache T, Vallin J, Dechelette E, Cordonnier D: How far can plasmatic levels of beta-2-microglobulin in hemodialysis be relied upon? Contrib Nephrol 62:54-59, 1988

151. Jureidini KF, Hogg RJ, van Renen MJ, Southwood TR, Henning PH, Cobiac L, Daniels L, Harris S: Evaluation of long-term aggressive dietary management of chronic renal failure in children. Pediatr Nephrol 4:1-10, 1990

152. Uauy RD, Hogg RJ, Brewer ED, Reisch JS, Cunningham C, Holliday MA: Dietary protein and growth in infants with chronic renal insufficiency: a report from the Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group and the University of California, San Francisco. Pediatr Nephrol 8:45-50, 1994

153. Kopple JD, Levey AS, Greene T, Chumlea WC, Gassman JJ, Hollinger DL, Maroni BJ, Merrill D, Scherch LK, Schulman G, Wang SR, Zimmer GS: Effect of dietary protein restriction on nutritional status in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Kidney Int 52:778-791, 1997

154. Coggins CH, Dwyer JT, Greene T, Petot G, Snetselaar LG, Van Lente F: Serum lipid changes associated with modified protein diets: results from the feasibility phase of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Am J Kidney Dis 23:514-523, 1994

155. Combe C, Deforges-Lasseur C, Caix J, Pommereau A, Marot D, Aparicio M: Compliance and effects of nutritional treatment on progression and metabolic disorders of chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8:412-418, 1993

156. Cianciaruso B, Capuano A, D'Amaro E, Ferrara N, Nastasi A, Conte G, Bellizzi V, Andreucci VE: Dietary compliance to a low protein and phosphate diet in patients with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int Suppl 27:S173-176, 1989

157. Clinical practice guidelines for nutrition in chronic renal failure. KDOQI, National Kidney Foundation. Am J Kidney Dis 35:S1-S140, 2000

158. Wallot M, Bonzel KE, Winter A, Georger B, Lettgen B, Bald M: Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as oral phosphate binder in pediatric and adolescent hemodialysis patients. Pediatr Nephrol 10:625-630, 1996

159. Sieniawska M, Roszkowska-Blaim M, Weglarska J, Jablczynska A, Welc-Dobies J: Calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Mater Med Pol 23:203-208, 1991

160. Tamanaha K, Mak RH, Rigden SP, Turner C, Start KM, Haycock GB, Chantler C: Long-term suppression of hyperparathyroidism by phosphate binders in uremic children. Pediatr Nephrol 1:145-149, 1987

161. Andreoli SP, Dunson JW, Bergstein JM: Calcium carbonate is an effective phosphorus binder in children with chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 9:206-210, 1987

162. Salusky IB, Coburn JW, Foley J, Nelson P, Fine RN: Effects of oral calcium carbonate on control of serum phosphorus and changes in plasma aluminum levels after discontinuation of aluminum-containing gels in children receiving dialysis. J Pediatr 108:767-770, 1986

163. Mahdavi H, Kuizon BD, Gales B, Wang HJ, Elashoff RM, Salusky IB: Sevelamer hydrochloride: an effective phosphate binder in dialyzed children. Pediatr Nephrol 18:1260-1264, 2003

163a. Salusky IB, Goodman WG, Sahney S, Gales B, Perilloux A, Wang HJ, Elashoff RM, Juppner H: Sevelamer controls parathyroid hormone-induced bone disease as efficiently as calcium carbonate without increasing serum calcium levels during therapy with active vitamin D sterols. J Am Soc Nephrol 16:2501-2508, 2005

164. Sedman AB, Wilkening GN, Warady BA, Lum GM, Alfrey AC: Encephalopathy in childhood secondary to aluminum toxicity. J Pediatr 105:836-838, 1984

165. Sedman AB, Miller NL, Warady BA, Lum GM, Alfrey AC: Aluminum loading in children with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 26:201-204, 1984

166. Salusky IB, Foley J, Nelson P, Goodman WG: Aluminum accumulation during treatment with aluminum hydroxide and dialysis in children and young adults with chronic renal disease. N Engl J Med 324:527-531, 1991

167. Lefebvre A, de Vernejoul MC, Gueris J, Goldfarb B, Graulet AM, Morieux C: Optimal correction of acidosis changes progression of dialysis osteodystrophy. Kidney Int 36:1112-1118, 1989

168. Mauro LS, Kuhl DA, Kirchhoff JR, Mauro VF, Hamilton RW: Impact of oral bases on aluminum absorption. Am J Ther 8:21-25, 2001

169. Mai ML, Emmett M, Sheikh MS, Santa Ana CA, Schiller L, Fordtran JS: Calcium acetate, an effective phosphorus binder in patients with renal failure. Kidney Int 36:690-695, 1989

170. Schiller LR, Santa Ana CA, Sheikh MS, Emmett M, Fordtran JS: Effect of the time of administration of calcium acetate on phosphorus binding. N Engl J Med 320:1110-1113, 1989

171. Slatopolsky E, Weerts C, Lopez-Hilker S, Norwood K, Zink M, Windus D, Delmez J: Calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis. N Engl J Med 315:157-161, 1986

172. Balasa RW, Murray RL, Kondelis NP, Bischel MD: Phosphate-binding properties and electrolyte content of aluminum hydroxide antacids. Nephron 45:16-21, 1987

173. Emmett M, Sirmon MD, Kirkpatrick WG, Nolan CR, Schmitt GW, Cleveland MB: Calcium acetate control of serum phosphorus in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 17:544-550, 1991

174. Sheikh MS, Maguire JA, Emmett M, Santa Ana CA, Nicar MJ, Schiller LR, Fordtran JS: Reduction of dietary phosphorus absorption by phosphorus binders. A theoretical, in vitro, and in vivo study. J Clin Invest 83:66-73, 1989

175. Rosenbaum DP, Holmes-Farley SR, Mandeville WH, Pitruzzello M, Goldberg DI: Effect of RenaGel, a non-absorbable, cross-linked, polymeric phosphate binder, on urinary phosphorus excretion in rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant 12:961-964, 1997

176. Tom A, McCauley L, Bell L, Rodd C, Espinosa P, Yu G, Yu J, Girardin C, Sharma A: Growth during maintenance hemodialysis: impact of enhanced nutrition and clearance. J Pediatr 134:464-471, 1999

177. Raj DS, Charra B, Pierratos A, Work J: In search of ideal hemodialysis: is prolonged frequent dialysis the answer? Am J Kidney Dis 34:597-610, 1999

178. Mucsi I, Hercz G, Uldall R, Ouwendyk M, Francoeur R, Pierratos A: Control of serum phosphate without any phosphate binders in patients treated with nocturnal hemodialysis. Kidney Int 53:1399-1404, 1998

179. Alfrey AC: Aluminum intoxication. N Engl J Med 310:1113-1115, 1984

180. Andreoli SP, Bergstein JM, Sherrard DJ: Aluminum intoxication from aluminum-containing phosphate binders in children with azotemia not undergoing dialysis. N Engl J Med 310:1079-1084, 1984

181. Alon U, Davidai G, Bentur L, Berant M, Better OS: Oral calcium carbonate as phosphate-binder in infants and children with chronic renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab 12:320-325, 1986

182. Birck R, Zimmermann E, Wassmer S, Nowack R, van der Woude FJ: Calcium ketoglutarate versus calcium acetate for treatment of hyperphosphataemia in patients on maintenance haemodialysis: a cross-over study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 14:1475-1479, 1999

183. Lerner A, Kramer M, Goldstein S, Caruana R, Epstein S, Raja R: Calcium carbonate. A better phosphate binder than aluminum hydroxide. ASAIO Trans 32:315-318, 1986

184. Bleyer AJ, Burke SK, Dillon M, Garrett B, Kant KS, Lynch D, Rahman SN, Schoenfeld P, Teitelbaum I, Zeig S, Slatopolsky E: A comparison of the calcium-free phosphate binder sevelamer hydrochloride with calcium acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 33:694-701, 1999

185. Janssen MJ, van der Kuy A, ter Wee PM, van Boven WP: Aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate and calcium acetate in chronic intermittent hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 45:111-119, 1996

186. Pflanz S, Henderson IS, McElduff N, Jones MC: Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as phosphate-binding agents in chronic haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9:1121-1124, 1994

187. Ring T, Nielsen C, Andersen SP, Behrens JK, Sodemann B, Kornerup HJ: Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as phosphorus binders in patients on chronic haemodialysis: a controlled study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8:341-346, 1993

188. Caravaca F, Fernandez MA, Ruiz-Calero R, Cubero J, Aparicio A, Jimenez F, Garcia MC: Effects of oral phosphorus supplementation on mineral metabolism of renal transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:2605-2611, 1998

189. Chertow GM, Burke SK, Lazarus JM, Stenzel KH, Wombolt D, Goldberg D, Bonventre JV, Slatopolsky E: Poly[allylamine hydrochloride] (RenaGel): a noncalcemic phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 29:66-71, 1997

190. Delmez JA, Kelber J, Norword KY, Giles KS, Slatopolsky E: Magnesium carbonate as a phosphorus binder: a prospective, controlled, crossover study. Kidney Int 49:163-167, 1996

191. van den Bergh JP, Gelens MA, Klaassen HA, Kaufmann BG, Bottger WM, Verstappen VM: Efficacy and tolerance of three different calcium acetate formulations in hemodialysis patients. Neth J Med 55:222-228, 1999

192. Tan SY, Irish A, Winearls CG, Brown EA, Gower PE, Clutterbuck EJ, Madhoo S, Lavender JP, Pepys MB, Hawkins PN: Long term effect of renal transplantation on dialysis-related amyloid deposits and symptomatology. Kidney Int 50:282-289, 1996

193. Ittel TH, Schafer C, Schmitt H, Gladziwa U, Sieberth HG: Calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder in dialysis patients: evaluation of an enteric-coated preparation and effect of additional aluminium hydroxide on hyperaluminaemia. Klin Wochenschr 69:59-67, 1991

194. Bro S, Rasmussen RA, Handberg J, Olgaard K, Feldt-Rasmussen B: Randomized crossover study comparing the phosphate-binding efficacy of calcium ketoglutarate versus calcium carbonate in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 31:257-262, 1998

195. Jespersen B, Jensen JD, Nielsen HK, Lauridsen IN, Andersen MJ, Poulsen JH, Gammelgaard B, Pedersen EB: Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 6:98-104, 1991

196. Bame SI, Petersen N, Wray NP: Variation in hemodialysis patient compliance according to demographic characteristics. Soc Sci Med 37:1035-1043, 1993

197. Coyne T, Olson M, Bradham K, Garcon M, Gregory P, Scherch L: Dietary satisfaction correlated with adherence in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. J Am Diet Assoc 95:1301-1306, 1995

198. Cleary DJ, Matzke GR, Alexander AC, Joy MS: Medication knowledge and compliance among patients receiving long-term dialysis. Am J Health Syst Pharm 52:1895-1900, 1995

199. Morduchowicz G, Sulkes J, Aizic S, Gabbay U, Winkler J, Boner G: Compliance in hemodialysis patients: a multivariate regression analysis. Nephron 64:365-368, 1993

200. Weed-Collins M, Hogan R: Knowledge and health beliefs regarding phosphate-binding medication in predicting compliance. Anna J 16:278-282, 285; discussion 286, 1989

201. Cummings KM, Becker MH, Kirscht JP, Levin NW: Psychosocial factors affecting adherence to medical regiments in a group of hemodialysis patients. Med Care 20:567-580, 1982

202. Blackburn SL: Dietary compliance of chronic hemodialysis patients. J Am Diet Assoc 70:31-37, 1977

203. Coburn JW, Mischel MG, Goodman WG, Salusky IB: Calcium citrate markedly enhances aluminum absorption from aluminum hydroxide. Am J Kidney Dis 17:708-711, 1991

204. Chertow GM, Dillon M, Burke SK, Steg M, Bleyer AJ, Garrett BN, Domoto DT, Wilkes BM, Wombolt DG, Slatopolsky E: A randomized trial of sevelamer hydrochloride (RenaGel) with and without supplemental calcium. Strategies for the control of hyperphosphatemia and hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 51:18-26, 1999

205. Chertow GM, Dillon MA, Amin N, Burke SK: Sevelamer with and without calcium and vitamin D: observations from a long-term open-label clinical trial. J Ren Nutr 10:125-132, 2000

206. Slatopolsky E, Finch J, Clay P, Martin D, Sicard G, Singer G, Gao P, Cantor T, Dusso A: A novel mechanism for skeletal resistance in uremia. Kidney Int 58:753-761, 2000

207. Kurz P, Monier-Faugere MC, Bognar B, Werner E, Roth P, Vlachojannis J, Malluche HH: Evidence for abnormal calcium homeostasis in patients with adynamic bone disease. Kidney Int 46:855-861, 1994

208. Chertow GM, Burke SK, Raggi P: Sevelamer attenuates the progression of coronary and aortic calcification in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 62:245-252, 2002

209. Nordin BEC: Nutritional consideration, in Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium Metabolism, Nordin BEC (ed). New York, Churchill Livingston, 1976, pp 3-35

210. Portale AA: Blood calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Favus MJ (ed). Philadelphia, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999, pp 115-118

211. Elin RJ: Laboratory reference intervals and values, in Cecil Textbook of Medicine, Goldman L, Bennett JC (eds), 21st ed. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co., 2000, pp 2299-2308

212. Enders DB, Rude RK: Mineral and bone metabolism, in Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, Burtis CA, Ashwood ER (eds), 5th ed. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co., 2001, pp 795-821

213. Institute of Medicine. Dietary references intakes: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D3, and fluoride. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 2000

214. Lemann J, Favus MJ: The intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Favus MJ (ed). Philadelphia, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999, pp 63-67

215. Brickman AS, Coburn JW, Massry SG, Norman AW: 1,25 Dihydroxy-vitamin D3 in normal man and patients with renal failure. Ann Intern Med 80:161-168, 1974

216. Shane E: Hypercalcemia; pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, differential diagnosis and management, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Favus MJ (ed). Philadelphia, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999, pp 183-187

217. Massry SG, Smogorzewski M: Dyscalcemias, in Massry and Glassock's Textbook of Nephrology, Massry SG, Glassock RJ (eds), Philadelphia, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2001, pp 326-340

218. Fernandez E, Montoliu J: Successful treatment of massive uraemic tumoral calcinosis with daily haemodialysis and very low calcium dialysate. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9:1207-1209, 1994

219. Baker SS, Cochran WJ, Flores CA, Georgieff MK, Jacobson MS, Jaksic T, Krebs NF: American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Nutrition. Calcium requirements of infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics 104:1152-1157, 1999

220. Raper NR, Zissa C, Rourke J: Nutrient Content of the US Food Supply, 1909-1988, in Home Economics Research Report No. 50. Washington, DC, US Dept of Agriculture, 1992

221. Hsu CH: Are we mismanaging calcium and phosphate metabolism in renal failure? Am J Kidney Dis 29:641-649, 1997

222. Andon MB, Peacock M, Kanerva RL, De Castro JA: Calcium absorption from apple and orange juice fortified with calcium citrate malate (CCM). J Am Coll Nutr 15:313-316, 1996

223. Gonzalez E, Martin K: Calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott-Raven, 1998

224. Weaver CM: Calcium bioavailability and its relation to osteoporosis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 200:157-160, 1992

225. Weaver CM, Proulx WR, Heaney R: Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr 70:543S-548S, 1999

226. Weaver CM, Plawecki KL: Dietary calcium: adequacy of a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr 59:1238S-1241S, 1994

227. Clase CM, Norman GL, Beecroft ML, Churchill DN: Albumin-corrected calcium and ionized calcium in stable haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 15:1841-1846, 2000

228. Morton AR, Hercz G: Hypercalcemia in dialysis patients: comparison of diagnostic methods. Dial Transplant 20:661-667, 1991

229. Rix M, Andreassen H, Eskildsen P, Langdahl B, Olgaard K: Bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with predialysis chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 56:1084-1093, 1999

230. Coburn JW, Popovtzer MM, Massry SG, Kleeman CR: The physicochemical state and renal handling of divalent ions in chronic renal failure. Arch Intern Med 124:302-311, 1969

231. Wasler M: The separate effects of hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia of malignancy, renal failure and acidosis on the state of calcium phosphate and other ions in plasma. J Clin Invest 41:1454-1464, 1962

232. Campos C, Arata RO, Mautalen CA: Parathyroid hormone and vertebral osteosclerosis in uremic patients. Metabolism 25:495-501, 1976

233. Fuss M, De Backer M, Brauman J, Nijs-Dewolf N, Manderlier T, Brauman H, Corvilain J: Parathyroid hormone plasma level in untreated chronic renal failure and in hemodialyzed patients. Nephron 17:144-154, 1976

234. Malhotra KK, Gadekar NG, Umashankar P, Bhargava S: Bone disease in chronic renal failure. Indian J Med Res 56:1687-1695, 1968

235. Foley RN, Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Kent GM, Hu L, O'Dea R, Murray DC, Barre PE: Hypocalcemia, morbidity, and mortality in end-stage renal disease. Am J Nephrol 16:386-393, 1996

236. Reichel H, Deibert B, Schmidt-Gayk H, Ritz E: Calcium metabolism in early chronic renal failure: implications for the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism. Nephrol Dial Transplant 6:162-169, 1991

237. Malluche HH, Werner E, Ritz E: Intestinal calcium absorption and whole-body calcium retention incipient and advanced renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1:263-270, 1978

238. Wiegmann TB, Kaye M: Malabsorption of calcium and phosphate in chronic renal failure: 32P and 45Ca studies in dialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 34:35-41, 1990

239. Mountokalakis TH, Singhellakis PN, Alevizaki CC, Virvidakis K, Ikkos DG: Relationship between degree of renal failure and impairment of intestinal calcium absorption. Nephron 16:20-30, 1976

240. Kopple JD, Coburn JW: Metabolic studies of low protein diets in uremia. II. Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Medicine (Baltimore) 52:597-607, 1973

241. Popovtzer MM, Michael UF, Johnson-Dial KS, Ronstadt C, Nelson D, Ogden DA: Dietary calcium deprivation and secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients treated with chronic dialysis. Miner Electrolyte Metab 12:298-302, 1986

242. Trachtman H, Chan JC, Boyle R, Farina D, Baluarte HJ, Chinchilli VM, Dresner IG, Feld LG: The relationship between calcium, phosphorus, and sodium intake, race, and blood pressure in children with renal insufficiency: a report of the Growth Failure in Children with Renal Diseases (GFRD) Study. J Am Soc Nephrol 6:126-131, 1995

243. Clarkson EM, Eastwood JB, Koutsaimanis KG, de Wardener HE: Net intestinal absorption of calcium in patients with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 3:258-263, 1973

244. Hercz G, Kraut JA, Andress DA, Howard N, Roberts C, Shinaberger JH, Sherrard DJ, Coburn JW: Use of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder in dialysis patients. Miner Electrolyte Metab 12:314-319, 1986

245. Moriniere P, Fournier A, Leflon A, Herve M, Sebert JL, Gregoire I, Bataille P, Gueris J: Comparison of 1 alpha-OH-vitamin D3 and high doses of calcium carbonate for the control of hyperparathyroidism and hyperaluminemia in patients on maintenance dialysis. Nephron 39:309-315, 1985

246. Petersen LJ, Rudnicki M, Hojsted J: Long-term oral calcium supplementation reduces diastolic blood pressure in end stage renal disease. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Int J Artif Organs 17:37-40, 1994

247. Saha H, Pietila K, Mustonen J, Pasternack A, Morsky P, Seppala E, Reinikainen P: Acute effects of calcium carbonate and citrate on secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure. Am J Nephrol 11:465-469, 1991

248. Maher ER, Young G, Smyth-Walsh B, Pugh S, Curtis JR: Aortic and mitral valve calcification in patients with end-stage renal disease. Lancet 2:875-877, 1987

249. Fernandez-Reyes MJ, Auxiliadora Bajo M, Robles P, Selgas R, Oliver J, Del Peso G, Garcia G, Jimenez C, Garcia-Gallego F: Mitral annular calcification in CAPD patients with a low degree of hyperparathyroidism. An analysis of other possible risk factors. Nephrol Dial Transplant 10:2090-2095, 1995

250. Valentzas C, Meindok H, Oreopoulos DG, Meema HK, Rabinovich S, Jones M, Sutton D, Rapaport A, deVeber GA: Visceral calcification and Ca - P product. Adv Exp Med Biol 103:187-193, 1978

251. Ribeiro S, Ramos A, Brandao A, Rebelo JR, Guerra A, Resina C, Vila-Lobos A, Carvalho F, Remedio F, Ribeiro F: Cardiac valve calcification in haemodialysis patients: role of calcium-phosphate metabolism. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:2037-2040, 1998

252. Cassidy MJ, Owen JP, Ellis HA, Dewar J, Robinson CJ, Wilkinson R, Ward MK, Kerr DN: Renal osteodystrophy and metastatic calcification in long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Q J Med 54:29-48, 1985

253. Milliner DS, Zinsmeister AR, Lieberman E, Landing B: Soft tissue calcification in pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 38:931-936, 1990

254. Bouillon RA, Auwerx JH, Lissens WD, Pelemans WK: Vitamin D status in the elderly: seasonal substrate deficiency causes 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 45:755-763, 1987

255. Ooms ME, Roos JC, Bezemer PD, van der Vijgh WJ, Bouter LM, Lips P: Prevention of bone loss by vitamin D supplementation in elderly women: a randomized double-blind trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:1052-1058, 1995

256. Khaw KT, Sneyd MJ, Compston J: Bone density, parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women. Br Med J 305:373-376, 1992

257. Eastwood JB, Stamp TC, De Wardener HE, Bordier PJ, Arnaud CD: The effect of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 in the osteomalacia of chronic renal failure. Clin Sci Mol Med 52:499-508, 1977

258. Eastwood JB, Stamp TC, Harris E, de Wardener HE: Vitamin-D deficiency in the osteomalacia of chronic renal failure. Lancet 2:1209-1211, 1976

259. Chapuy MC, Meunier PJ: Vitamin D insufficiency in adults and the elderly, in Vitamin D, Feldman D, Glorieux FH, Pike JW (eds). San Diego, Academic Press, 1997, pp 679-693

260. Thomas MK, Lloyd-Jones DM, Thadhani RI, Shaw AC, Deraska DJ, Kitch BT, Vamvakas EC, Dick IM, Prince RL, Finkelstein JS: Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients. N Engl J Med 338:777-783, 1998

261. LeBoff MS, Kohlmeier L, Hurwitz S, Franklin J, Wright J, Glowacki J: Occult vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal US women with acute hip fracture. JAMA 281:1505-1511, 1999

262. Koenig KG, Lindberg JS, Zerwekh JE, Padalino PK, Cushner HM, Copley JB: Free and total 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in subjects with renal disease. Kidney Int 41:161-165, 1992

263. Messa P, Vallone C, Mioni G, Geatti O, Turrin D, Passoni N, Cruciatti A: Direct in vivo assessment of parathyroid hormone-calcium relationship curve in renal patients. Kidney Int 46:1713-1720, 1994

264. Papapoulos SE, Clemens TL, Fraher LJ, Gleed J, O'Riordan JL: Metabolites of vitamin D in human vitamin-D deficiency: effect of vitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. Lancet 2:612-615, 1980

265. National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bone Metabolism and Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 42:S1-S202, 2003 (suppl 3)

266. Gonzalez EA et al Am J Nephrol 24:503-510, 2004

267. Holick MF: Vitamin D and the kidney. Kidney Int 32:912-929, 1987

268. Holick MF, Matsuoka LY, Wortsman J: Age, vitamin D, and solar ultraviolet. Lancet 2:1104-1105, 1989

269. Clemens TL, Adams JS, Henderson SL, Holick MF: Increased skin pigment reduces the capacity of skin to synthesise vitamin D3. Lancet 1:74-76, 1982

270. Chapuy MC, Preziosi P, Maamer M, Arnaud S, Galan P, Hercberg S, Meunier PJ: Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporos Int 7:439-443, 1997

271. Saha H: Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis in patients with heavy proteinuria. Clin Nephrol 41:290-296, 1994

272. Kinyamu HK, Gallagher JC, Balhorn KE, Petranick KM, Rafferty KA: Serum vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption in normal young and elderly free-living women and in women living in nursing homes. Am J Clin Nutr 65:790-797, 1997

273. Webb AR, Pilbeam C, Hanafin N, Holick MF: An evaluation of the relative contributions of exposure to sunlight and of diet to the circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in an elderly nursing home population in Boston. Am J Clin Nutr 51:1075-1081, 1990

274. Ghazali A, Fardellone P, Pruna A, Atik A, Achard JM, Oprisiu R, Brazier M, Remond A, Moriniere P, Garabedian M, Eastwood J, Fournier A: Is low plasma 25-(OH)vitamin D a major risk factor for hyperparathyroidism and Looser's zones independent of calcitriol? Kidney Int 55:2169-2177, 1999

275. Lambert PW, Stern PH, Avioli RC, Brackett NC, Turner RT, Greene A, Fu IY, Bell NH: Evidence for extrarenal production of 1 alpha ,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in man. J Clin Invest 69:722-725, 1982

276. Dusso A, Lopez-Hilker S, Rapp N, Slatopolsky E: Extra-renal production of calcitriol in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 34:368-375, 1988

277. Dusso AS, Finch J, Brown A, Ritter C, Delmez J, Schreiner G, Slatopolsky E: Extrarenal production of calcitriol in normal and uremic humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 72:157-164, 1991

278. Food and Nutrition Board. National Research Council. National Academy of Sciences. Recommended Daily Allowances. 10 ed. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1989

279. Food and Nutrition Board. National Research Council. National Academy of Sciences. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1997

280. Shah BR, Finberg L: Single-day therapy for nutritional vitamin D-deficiency rickets: a preferred method. J Pediatr 125:487-490, 1994

281. Kruse K: Pathophysiology of calcium metabolism in children with vitamin D-deficiency rickets. J Pediatr 126:736-741, 1995

282. Combe C, Aparicio M: Phosphorus and protein restriction and parathyroid function in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 46:1381-1386, 1994

283. Lafage MH, Combe C, Fournier A, Aparicio M: Ketodiet, physiological calcium intake and native vitamin D improve renal osteodystrophy. Kidney Int 42:1217-1225, 1992

284. Coburn JW, Tan AU Jr, Levine BS, Mazess RB, Kyllo DM, Knutson JC, Bishop CW: 1 alpha-Hydroxy-vitamin D2: a new look at an 'old' compound. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:153-157, 1996 (suppl 3)

285. Harrington DD, Page EH: Acute vitamin D3 toxicosis in horses: case reports and experimental studies of the comparative toxicity of vitamins D2 and D3. J Am Vet Med Assoc 182:1358-1369, 1983

286. van der Wielen RP, Lowik MR, van den Berg H, de Groot LC, Haller J, Moreiras O, van Staveren WA: Serum vitamin D concentrations among elderly people in Europe. Lancet 346:207-210, 1995

287. Lips P, van Ginkel FC, Jongen MJ, Rubertus F, van der Vijgh WJ, Netelenbos JC: Determinants of vitamin D status in patients with hip fracture and in elderly control subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 46:1005-1010, 1987

288. Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Duboeuf F, Brun J, Crouzet B, Arnaud S, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ: Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med 327:1637-1642, 1992

289. Alem AM, Sherrard DJ, Gillen DL, Weiss NS, Beresford SA, Heckbert SR, Wong C, Stehman-Breen C: Increased risk of hip fracture among patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 58:396-399, 2000

290. Rickers H, Christiansen C, Christensen P, Christensen M, Rodbro P: Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in different degrees of impaired renal function. Estimation of renal and extrarenal secretion rate of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Nephron 39:267-271, 1985

291. Martinez I, Saracho R, Montenegro J, Llach F: A deficit of calcitriol synthesis may not be the initial factor in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:22-28, 1996 (suppl 3)

292. Nordal KP, Dahl E: Low dose calcitriol versus placebo in patients with predialysis chronic renal failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67:929-936, 1988

293. Coen G, Mazzaferro S, Bonucci E, Ballanti P, Massimetti C, Donato G, Landi A, Smacchi A, Della Rocca C, Cinotti GA, et al: Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism of predialysis chronic renal failure with low doses of 1,25(OH)2D3: humoral and histomorphometric results. Miner Electrolyte Metab 12:375-382, 1986

294. Bianchi ML, Colantonio G, Campanini F, Rossi R, Valenti G, Ortolani S, Buccianti G: Calcitriol and calcium carbonate therapy in early chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9:1595-1599, 1994

295. Silver J, Naveh-Many T, Mayer H, Schmelzer HJ, Popovtzer MM: Regulation by vitamin D metabolites of parathyroid hormone gene transcription in vivo in the rat. J Clin Invest 78:1296-1301, 1986

296. Przedlacki J, Manelius J, Huttunen K: Bone mineral density evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry after one-year treatment with calcitriol started in the predialysis phase of chronic renal failure. Nephron 69:433-437, 1995

297. Baker LR, Abrams L, Roe CJ, Faugere MC, Fanti P, Subayti Y, Malluche HH: 1,25(OH)2D3 administration in moderate renal failure: a prospective double-blind trial. Kidney Int 35:661-669, 1989

298. Nordal KP, Dahl E, Halse J, Attramadal A, Flatmark A: Long-term low-dose calcitriol treatment in predialysis chronic renal failure: can it prevent hyperparathyroid bone disease? Nephrol Dial Transplant 10:203-206, 1995

299. Chesney RW, Moorthy AV, Eisman JA, Jax DK, Mazess RB, DeLuca HF: Increased growth after long-term oral 1alpha, 25-vitamin D3 in childhood renal osteodystrophy. N Engl J Med 298:238-242, 1978

300. Chan JC, McEnery PT, Chinchilli VM, Abitbol CL, Boineau FG, Friedman AL, Lum GM, Roy S, 3rd, Ruley EJ, Strife CF: A prospective, double-blind study of growth failure in children with chronic renal insufficiency and the effectiveness of treatment with calcitriol versus dihydrotachysterol. The Growth Failure in Children with Renal Diseases Investigators. J Pediatr 124:520-528, 1994

301. Schmitt CP, Ardissino G, Testa S, Claris-Appiani A, Mehls O: Growth in children with chronic renal failure on intermittent versus daily calcitriol. Pediatr Nephrol 18:440-444, 2003

302. Kuizon BD, Goodman WG, Juppner H, Boechat I, Nelson P, Gales B, Salusky IB: Diminished linear growth during intermittent calcitriol therapy in children undergoing CCPD. Kidney Int 53:205-211, 1998

303. Waller S, Ledermann S, Trompeter R, van't Hoff W, Ridout D, Rees L: Catch-up growth with normal parathyroid hormone levels in chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 18:1236-1241, 2003

304. Coen G, Mazzaferro S, Manni M, Napoletano I, Fondi G, Sardella D, Perruzza I, Pasquali M, Taggi F: Treatment with small doses of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in predialysis chronic renal failure may lower the rate of decline of renal function. Ital J Miner Electrolyte Metab 8:117-121, 1994

305. Jensen GF, Christiansen C, Transbol I: 1,25(OH)2D3 and renal function. A controlled clinical study in normal elderly women. Acta Med Scand 211:51-54, 1982

306. Bertoli M, Luisetto G, Ruffatti A, Urso M, Romagnoli G: Renal function during calcitriol therapy in chronic renal failure. Clin Nephrol 33:98-102, 1990

307. Perez A, Raab R, Chen TC, Turner A, Holick MF: Safety and efficacy of oral calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) for the treatment of psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 134:1070-1078, 1996

308. Kanis JA, Cundy T, Earnshaw M, Henderson RG, Heynen G, Naik R, Russell RG, Smith R, Woods CG: Treatment of renal bone disease with 1 alpha-hydroxylated derivatives of vitamin D3. Clinical, biochemical, radiographic and histological responses. Q J Med 48:289-322, 1979

309. Naik RB, Cundy T, Robinson BH, Russell RG, Kanis JA: Effects of vitamin D metabolites and analogues on renal function. Nephron 28:17-25, 1981

310. Nielsen HE, Romer FK, Melsen F, Christensen MS, Hansen HE: 1 alpha-hydroxy vitamin D3 treatment of non-dialyzed patients with chronic renal failure. Effects on bone, mineral metabolism and kidney function. Clin Nephrol 13:103-108, 1980

311. Goodman WG, Salusky IB: Evolution of secondary hyperparathyroidism during oral calcitriol therapy in pediatric renal osteodystrophy. Contrib Nephrol 90:189-195, 1991

312. Salusky IB, Kuizon BD, Belin TR, Ramirez JA, Gales B, Segre GV, Goodman WG: Intermittent calcitriol therapy in secondary hyperparathyroidism: a comparison between oral and intraperitoneal administration. Kidney Int 54:907-914, 1998

313. Brickman AS, Coburn JW, Sherrard DJ, Wong EG, Norman AW, Singer FR: Clinical effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in uremic patients with overt osteodystrophy. Contrib Nephrol 18:29-41, 1980

314. Kanis JA, Russell RG, Cundy T, Earnshaw M, Woods CG, Smith R, Heynen G: An evaluation of 1 alpha-hydroxy- and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the treatment of renal bone disease. Contrib Nephrol 18:12-28, 1980

315. Berl T, Berns AS, Huffer WE, Alfrey AC, Arnaud CD, Schrier RR: Controlled trial of the effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in patients treated with regular dialysis. Contrib Nephrol 18:72-81, 1980

316. Peacock M, Aaron JE, Walker GS, Davison AM: Bone disease and hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure: the effect of 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 7 Suppl:73s-81s, 1977

317. Herrmann P, Ritz E, Schmidt-Gayk H, Schafer I, Geyer J, Nonnast-Daniel B, Koch KM, Weber U, Horl W, Haas-Worle A, et al.: Comparison of intermittent and continuous oral administration of calcitriol in dialysis patients: a randomized prospective trial. Nephron 67:48-53, 1994

318. Papapoulos SE, Brownjohn AM, Junor BJ, Marsh FP, Goodwin FJ, Hately W, Lewin IG, Tomlinson S, Hendy GN, O'Riordan JL: Hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 7 Suppl:59s-65s, 1977

319. Moriniere P, Esper NE, Viron B, Judith D, Bourgeon B, Farquet C, Gheerbrandt JD, Chapuy MC, Orshoven AV, Pamphile R, Fournier A: Improvement of severe secondary hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients by intravenous 1-alpha(OH) vitamin D3, oral CaCo3 and low dialysate calcium. Kidney Int 43:S121-S124, 1993 (suppl 41)

320. Morii H, Ogura Y, Koshikawa S, Mimura N, Suzuki M, Kurokawa K, Marumo F, Kawaguchi Y, Maeda K, Nishizawa Y, Inoue S, Fujimi S: Efficacy and safety of oral falecalcitriol in reducing parathyroid hormone in hemodialysis patients withh secondary hyperparathyroidism. J Bone Miner Metab 16, 1988

321. Martin KJ, Gonzalez EA, Gellens M, Hamm LL, Abboud H, Lindberg J: 19-Nor-1-alpha-25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (Paricalcitol) safely and effectively reduces the levels of intact parathyroid hormone in patients on hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 9:1427-1432, 1998

322. Frazao JM, Elangovan L, Maung HM, Chesney RW, Acchiardo SR, Bower JD, Kelley BJ, Rodriguez HJ, Norris KC, Robertson JA, Levine BS, Goodman WG, Gentile D, Mazess RB, Kyllo DM, Douglass LL, Bishop CW, Coburn JW: Intermittent doxercalciferol (1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(2)) therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Am J Kidney Dis 36:550-561, 2000

323. Maung HM, Elangovan L, Frazao JM, Bower JD, Kelley BJ, Acchiardo SR, Rodriguez HJ, Norris KC, Sigala JF, Rutkowski M, Robertson JA, Goodman WG, Levine BS, Chesney RW, Mazess RB, Kyllo DM, Douglass LL, Bishop CW, Coburn JW: Efficacy and side effects of intermittent intravenous and oral doxercalciferol (1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(2)) in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a sequential comparison. Am J Kidney Dis 37:532-543, 2001

324. Sherrard DJ, Coburn JW, Brickman AS, Singer FR, Maloney N: Skeletal response to treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in renal failure. Contrib Nephrol 18:92-97, 1980

325. Krempien B, Ritz E, Tschope W: The effect of 1,25 (OH)2D3 on bone mineralization: ultrastructural studies in patients with renal osteodystrophy. Contrib Nephrol 18:122-134, 1980

326. Tan AU Jr, Levine BS, Mazess RB, Kyllo DM, Bishop CW, Knutson JC, Kleinman KS, Coburn JW: Effective suppression of parathyroid hormone by 1 alpha-hydroxy-vitamin D2 in hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Kidney Int 51:317-323, 1997

327. Sherrard DJ, Hercz G, Pei Y, Maloney NA, Greenwood C, Manuel A, Saiphoo C, Fenton SS, Segre GV: The spectrum of bone disease in end-stage renal failure–an evolving disorder. Kidney Int 43:436-442, 1993

328. Goodman WG, Ramirez JA, Belin TR, Chon Y, Gales B, Segre GV, Salusky IB: Development of adynamic bone in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism after intermittent calcitriol therapy. Kidney Int 46:1160-1166, 1994

329. Quarles LD, Lobaugh B, Murphy G: Intact parathyroid hormone overestimates the presence and severity of parathyroid-mediated osseous abnormalities in uremia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75:145-150, 1992

330. Sprague SM, Moe SM: Safety and efficacy of long-term treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism by low-dose intravenous calcitriol. Am J Kidney Dis 19:532-539, 1992

331. Cannella G, Bonucci E, Rolla D, Ballanti P, Moriero E, De Grandi R, Augeri C, Claudiani F, Di Maio G: Evidence of healing of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronically hemodialyzed uremic patients treated with long-term intravenous calcitriol. Kidney Int 46:1124-1132, 1994

332. Dressler R, Laut J, Lynn RI, Ginsberg N: Long-term high dose intravenous calcitriol therapy in end-stage renal disease patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Nephrol 43:324-331, 1995

333. Llach F, Hervas J, Cerezo S: The importance of dosing intravenous calcitriol in dialysis patients with severe hyperparathyroidism. Am J Kidney Dis 26:845-851, 1995

334. Fukuda N, Tanaka H, Tominaga Y, Fukagawa M, Kurokawa K, Seino Y: Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor density is associated with a more severe form of parathyroid hyperplasia in chronic uremic patients. J Clin Invest 92:1436-1443, 1993

335. Slatopolsky E, Weerts C, Thielan J, Horst R, Harter H, Martin KJ: Marked suppression of secondary hyperparathyroidism by intravenous administration of 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol in uremic patients. J Clin Invest 74:2136-2143, 1984

336. Fukagawa M, Kitaoka M, Yi H, Fukuda N, Matsumoto T, Ogata E, Kurokawa K: Serial evaluation of parathyroid size by ultrasonography is another useful marker for the long-term prognosis of calcitriol pulse therapy in chronic dialysis patients. Nephron 68:221-228, 1994

337. Fukagawa M, Okazaki R, Takano K, Kaname S, Ogata E, Kitaoka M, Harada S, Sekine N, Matsumoto T, Kurokawa K: Regression of parathyroid hyperplasia by calcitriol-pulse therapy in patients on long-term dialysis. N Engl J Med 323:421-422, 1990

338. Tsukamoto Y, Nomura M, Takahashi Y, Takagi Y, Yoshida A, Nagaoka T, Togashi K, Kikawada R, Marumo F: The 'oral 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 pulse therapy' in hemodialysis patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephron 57:23-28, 1991

339. Muramoto H, Haruki K, Yoshimura A, Mimo N, Oda K, Tofuku Y: Treatment of refractory hyperparathyroidism in patients on hemodialysis by intermittent oral administration of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D3. Nephron 58:288-294, 1991

340. Baker LR, Muir JW, Sharman VL, Abrams SM, Greenwood RN, Cattell WR, Goodwin FJ, Marsh FP, Adami S, Hately W: Controlled trial of calcitriol in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 26:185-191, 1986

341. Memmos DE, Eastwood JB, Talner LB, Gower PE, Curtis JR, Phillips ME, Carter GD, Alaghband-Zadeh J, Roberts AP, de Wardener HE: Double-blind trial of oral 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 versus placebo in asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 282:1919-1924, 1981

342. Bacchini G, Fabrizi F, Pontoriero G, Marcelli D, Di Filippo S, Locatelli F: 'Pulse oral' versus intravenous calcitriol therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients. A prospective and randomized study. Nephron 77:267-272, 1997

343. Indridason OS, Quarles LD: Comparison of treatments for mild secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients. Durham Renal Osteodystrophy Study Group. Kidney Int 57:282-292, 2000

344. Fischer ER, Harris DC: Comparison of intermittent oral and intravenous calcitriol in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Nephrol 40:216-220, 1993

345. Liou HH, Chiang SS, Huang TP, Shieh SD, Akmal M: Comparative effect of oral or intravenous calcitriol on secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic hemodialysis patients. Miner Electrolyte Metab 20:97-102, 1994

346. Caravaca F, Cubero JJ, Jimenez F, Lopez JM, Aparicio A, Cid MC, Pizarro JL, Liso J, Santos I: Effect of the mode of calcitriol administration on PTH-ionized calcium relationship in uraemic patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrol Dial Transplant 10:665-670, 1995

347. Quarles LD, Yohay DA, Carroll BA, Spritzer CE, Minda SA, Bartholomay D, Lobaugh BA: Prospective trial of pulse oral versus intravenous calcitriol treatment of hyperparathyroidism in ESRD. Kidney Int 45:1710-1721, 1994

348. Levine BS, Song M: Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of pulse oral versus intravenous calcitriol in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:488-496, 1996

349. Gallieni M, Brancaccio D, Padovese P, Rolla D, Bedani P, Colantonio G, Bronzieri C, Bagni B, Tarolo G: Low-dose intravenous calcitriol treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients. Italian Group for the Study of Intravenous Calcitriol. Kidney Int 42:1191-1198, 1992

350. Moe SM, Kraus MA, Gassensmith CM, Fineberg NS, Gannon FH, Peacock M: Safety and efficacy of pulse and daily calcitriol in patients on CAPD: a randomized trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:1234-1241, 1998

351. Brown AJ, Slatopolsky E: Vitamin D analogs: perspectives for treatment. Miner Electrolyte Metab 25:337-341, 1999

352. Slatopolsky E, Dusso A, Brown A: New analogs of vitamin D3. Kidney Int Suppl 73:S46-S51, 1999

353. Kurokawa K, Akizawa T, Suzuki M, Akiba T, Ogata E, Slatopolsky E: Effect of 22-oxacalcitriol on hyperparathyroidism of dialysis patients: results of a preliminary study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:121-124, 1996 (suppl 3)

354. Akiba T, Marumo F, Owada A, Kurihara S, Inoue A, Chida Y, Ando R, Shinoda T, Ishida Y, Ohashi Y: Controlled trial of falecalcitriol versus alfacalcidol in suppression of parathyroid hormone in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Am J Kidney Dis 32:238-246, 1998

355. Taga T: The signal transducer gp130 is shared by interleukin-6 family of haematopoietic and neurotrophic cytokines. Ann Med 29:63-72, 1997

356. Slatopolsky E, Finch J, Ritter C, Denda M, Morrissey J, Brown A, DeLuca H: A new analog of calcitriol, 19-nor-1,25-(OH)2D2, suppresses parathyroid hormone secretion in uremic rats in the absence of hypercalcemia. Am J Kidney Dis 26:852-860, 1995

357. Nishii Y, Abe J, Mori T, Brown AJ, Dusso AS, Finch J, Lopez-Hilker S, Morrissey J, Slatopolsky E: The noncalcemic analogue of vitamin D, 22-oxacalcitriol, suppresses parathyroid hormone synthesis and secretion. Contrib Nephrol 91:123-128, 1991

358. Sjoden G, Lindgren JU, DeLuca HF: Antirachitic activity of 1 alpha-hydroxyergocalciferol and 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol in rats. J Nutr 114:2043-2046, 1984

359. Sjoden G, Smith C, Lindgren U, DeLuca HF: 1 alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D2 is less toxic than 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 178:432-436, 1985

360. Gallagher JC, Bishop CW, Knutson JC, Mazess RB, DeLuca HF: Effects of increasing doses of 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2 on calcium homeostasis in postmenopausal osteopenic women. J Bone Miner Res 9:607-614, 1994

361. Weber K, Goldberg M, Stangassinger M, Erben RG: 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2 is less toxic but not bone selective relative to 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ovariectomized rats. J Bone Miner Res 16:639-651, 2001

362. Vlassopoulos D, Noussias C, Revenas K, Hadjilouka-Mantaka A, Arvanitis D, Tzortzis G, Hadjiconstantinou V: Long-term effects of small doses of calcitriol in hemodialysis patients with moderate secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ren Fail 21:199-207, 1999

363. Martinez ME, Selgas R, Miguel JL, Balaguer G, Sanchez-Cabezudo MJ, Llach F: Osteocalcin levels in uremic patients: influence of calcitriol treatment through two different routes and type of dialysis. Nephron 59:429-433, 1991

364. Morita A, Tabata T, Inoue T, Nishizawa Y, Morii H: The effect of oral 1 alpha-hydroxycalciferol treatment on bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 46:389-393, 1996

365. Shimamatsu K, Maeda T, Harada A, Nishitani H, Onoyama K, Fujimi S, Omae T: 1-year controlled trial of 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Nephron 28:70-75, 1981

366. Hercz G, Pei Y, Greenwood C, Manuel A, Saiphoo C, Goodman WG, Segre GV, Fenton S, Sherrard DJ: Aplastic osteodystrophy without aluminum: the role of “suppressed” parathyroid function. Kidney Int 44:860-866, 1993

367. Andress DL, Norris KC, Coburn JW, Slatopolsky EA, Sherrard DJ: Intravenous calcitriol in the treatment of refractory osteitis fibrosa of chronic renal failure. N Engl J Med 321:274-279, 1989

368. Kanis JA, Russell RG, Naik RB, Earnshaw M, Smith R, Heynen G, Woods CG: Factors influencing the response to 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 in patients with renal bone disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 7 Suppl:51s-57s, 1977

369. Malluche HH, Goldstein DA, Massry SG: Effects of 6 months therapy with 1,25 (OH)2D3 on bone disease of dialysis patients. Contrib Nephrol 18:98-104, 1980

370. Delling G, Luhmann H, Bulla M, Fuchs C, Henning HV, Jansen JL, Kohnle W, Schulz W: The action of 1,25 (OH)2D3 on turnover kinetic, remodelling surfaces and structure of trabecular bone in chronic renal failure. Contrib Nephrol 18:105-121, 1980

371. Johnson WJ, Goldsmith RS, Beabout JW, Jowsey J, Kelly PJ, Arnaud CD: Prevention and reversal of progressive secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients maintained by hemodialysis. Am J Med 56:827-832, 1974

372. Sanchez CP, Salusky IB, Kuizon BD, Ramirez JA, Gales B, Ettenger RB, Goodman WG: Bone disease in children and adolescents undergoing successful renal transplantation. Kidney Int 53:1358-1364, 1998

373. London GM, Marty C, Marchais SJ, Guerin AP, Metivier F, de Vernejoul MC: Arterial calcifications and bone histomorphometry in end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 15:1943-1951, 2004

374. Piraino B, Bernardini J, Holley J, Johnston JR, Perlmutter JA, Martis L: Calcium mass transfer in peritoneal dialysis patients using 2.5 mEq/l calcium dialysate. Clin Nephrol 37:48-51, 1992

375. Malberti F, Corradi B, Imbasciati E: Calcium mass transfer and kinetics in CAPD using calcium-free solutions. Adv Perit Dial 9:274-279, 1993

376. Weinreich T, Colombi A, Echterhoff HH, Mielke G, Nebel M, Ziegelmayer C, Passlick-Deetjen J: Transperitoneal calcium mass transfer using dialysate with a low calcium concentration (1.0 mM). Perit Dial Int 13:S467-S470, 1993 (suppl 2)

377. Sieniawska M, Roszkowska-Blaim M, Wojciechowska B: The influence of dialysate calcium concentration on the PTH level in children undergoing CAPD. Perit Dial Int 16:S567-S569, 1996 (suppl 1)

378. Banalagay EE, Bernardini J, Piraino B: Calcium mass transfer with 10-hour dwell time using 1.25 versus 1.75 mmol/L calcium dialysate. Adv Perit Dial 9:271-273, 1993

379. Fabrizi F, Bacchini G, Di Filippo S, Pontoriero G, Locatelli F: Intradialytic calcium balances with different calcium dialysate levels. Effects on cardiovascular stability and parathyroid function. Nephron 72:530-535, 1996

380. Fernandez E, Borras M, Pais B, Montoliu J: Low-calcium dialysate stimulates parathormone secretion and its long-term use worsens secondary hyperparathyroidism. J Am Soc Nephrol 6:132-135, 1995

381. Honkanen E, Kala AR, Gronhagen-Riska C, Ikaheimo R: CAPD with low calcium dialysate and calcium carbonate: results of a 24-week study. Adv Perit Dial 8:356-361, 1992

382. Bro S, Brandi L, Olgaard K: High-normal calcium (1.35 mmol/l) dialysate in patients on CAPD: efficient and safe long-term control of plasma calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:1586-1591, 1996

383. Hutchison AJ, Freemont AJ, Boulton HF, Gokal R: Low-calcium dialysis fluid and oral calcium carbonate in CAPD. A method of controlling hyperphosphataemia whilst minimizing aluminium exposure and hypercalcaemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7:1219-1225, 1992

384. Sawyer N, Noonan K, Altmann P, Marsh F, Cunningham J: High-dose calcium carbonate with stepwise reduction in dialysate calcium concentration: effective phosphate control and aluminium avoidance in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 4:105-109, 1989

385. Carozzi S, Nasini MG, Santoni O, Pietrucci A: Low- and high-turnover bone disease in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: effects of low-Ca2+ peritoneal dialysis solution. Perit Dial Int 13:S473-S475, 1993 (suppl 2)

386. Brandi L, Nielsen PK, Bro S, Daugaard H, Olgaard K: Long-term effects of intermittent oral alphacalcidol, calcium carbonate and low-calcium dialysis (1.25 mmol L-1) on secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Intern Med 244:121-131, 1998

387. Buijsen CG, Struijk DG, Huijgen HJ, Boeschoten EW, Wilmink JM: Can low-calcium peritoneal dialysis solution safely replace the standard calcium solution in the majority of chronic peritoneal dialysis patients? Perit Dial Int 16:497-504, 1996

388. Shigematsu T, Kawaguchi Y, Kubo H, Nakayama M, Kato N, Yamamoto H, Osaka N, Hayakawa H, Ogawa A, Sakai O: Low calcium (1.25 mmol/L) dialysate can normalize relative hypoparathyroidism in CAPD patients with low bone turnover. Adv Perit Dial 12:250-256, 1996

389. Chertow GM, Burke SK, Dillon MA, Slatopolsky E: Long-term effects of sevelamer hydrochloride on the calcium x phosphate product and lipid profile of haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 14:2907-2914, 1999

390. Slatopolsky E, Weerts C, Norwood K, Giles K, Fryer P, Finch J, Windus D, Delmez J: Long-term effects of calcium carbonate and 2.5 mEq/liter calcium dialysate on mineral metabolism. Kidney Int 36:897-903, 1989

391. Goldberg DI, Dillon MA, Slatopolsky EA, Garrett B, Gray JR, Marbury T, Weinberg M, Wombolt D, Burke SK: Effect of RenaGel, a non-absorbed, calcium- and aluminium-free phosphate binder, on serum phosphorus, calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone in end-stage renal disease patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:2303-2310, 1998

392. Morrison G, Michelson EL, Brown S, Morganroth J: Mechanism and prevention of cardiac arrhythmias in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 17:811-819, 1980

393. Nappi SE, Virtanen VK, Saha HH, Mustonen JT, Pasternack AI: QTc dispersion increases during hemodialysis with low-calcium dialysate. Kidney Int 57:2117-2122, 2000

394. Nappi SE, Saha HH, Virtanen VK, Mustonen JT, Pasternack AI: Hemodialysis with high-calcium dialysate impairs cardiac relaxation. Kidney Int 55:1091-1096, 1999

395. Kyriazis J, Stamatiadis D, Mamouna A: Intradialytic and interdialytic effects of treatment with 1.25 and 1.75 Mmol/L of calcium dialysate on arterial compliance in patients on hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 35:1096-1103, 2000

396. Weinreich T, Passlick-Deetjen J, Ritz E: Low dialysate calcium in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a randomized controlled multicenter trial. The Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Study Group. Am J Kidney Dis 25:452-460, 1995

397. Wadhwa NK, Howell N, Suh H, Cabralda T: Low calcium (2.5 mEq/l) and high calcium (3.5 mEq/l) dialysate in peritoneal dialysis patients. Adv Perit Dial 8:385-388, 1992

398. Stein A, Baker F, Moorhouse J, Walls J: Peritonitis rate: traditional versus low calcium dialysate. Am J Kidney Dis 26:632-633, 1995

399. Weinreich T, Ritz E, Passlick-Deetjen J: Long-term dialysis with low-calcium solution (1.0 mmol/L) in CAPD: effects on bone mineral metabolism. Collaborators of the Multicenter Study Group. Perit Dial Int 16:260-268, 1996

400. Van der Niepen P, Sennesael J, Louis O, Verbeelen D: Effect of treatment with 1.25 and 1.75 mmol/l calcium dialysate on bone mineral density in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 10:2253-2258, 1995

401. Hamdy NA, Boletis J, Charlesworth D, Kanis JA, Brown CB: Low calcium dialysate increases the tolerance to vitamin D in peritoneal dialysis. Contrib Nephrol 89:190-198, 1991

402. Holgado R, Haire H, Ross D, Sprague S, Pahl M, Jara A, Martin-Malo A, Rodriguez M, Almaden Y, Felsenfeld AJ: Effect of a low calcium dialysate on parathyroid hormone secretion in diabetic patients on maintenance hemodialysis. J Bone Miner Res 15:927-935, 2000

403. Johnson DW, Rigby RJ, McIntyre HD, Brown A, Freeman J: A randomized trial comparing 1.25 mmol/l calcium dialysate to 1.75 mmol/l calcium dialysate in CAPD patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:88-93, 1996

404. Armstrong A, Beer J, Noonan K, Cunningham J: Reduced calcium dialysate in CAPD patients: efficacy and limitations. Nephrol Dial Transplant 12:1223-1228, 1997

405. Fine RN, Kohaut EC, Brown D, Perlman AJ: Growth after recombinant human growth hormone treatment in children with chronic renal failure: report of a multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Genentech Cooperative Study Group. J Pediatr 124:374-382, 1994

406. Schaefer F, Wuhl E, Haffner D, Mehls O: Stimulation of growth by recombinant human growth hormone in children undergoing peritoneal or hemodialysis treatment. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure. Adv Perit Dial 10:321-326, 1994

407. Haffner D, Schaefer F, Nissel R, Wuhl E, Tonshoff B, Mehls O: Effect of growth hormone treatment on the adult height of children with chronic renal failure. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure. N Engl J Med 343:923-930, 2000

408. Van Dyck M, Bilem N, Proesmans W: Conservative treatment for chronic renal failure from birth: a 3-year follow-up study. Pediatr Nephrol 13:865-869, 1999

409. Nixon JV, Narahara KA, Smitherman TC: Estimation of myocardial involvement in patients with acute myocardial infarction by two-dimensional echocardiography. Circulation 62:1248-1255, 1980

410. Prasad V, Greig F, Bastian W, Castells S, Juan C, AvRuskin TW: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis during treatment with recombinant growth hormone for isolated, partial growth hormone deficiency. J Pediatr 116:397-399, 1990

411. Fine RN, Kohaut E, Brown D, Kuntze J, Attie KM: Long-term treatment of growth retarded children with chronic renal insufficiency, with recombinant human growth hormone. Kidney Int 49:781-785, 1996

412. Mehls O, Broyer M: Growth response to recombinant human growth hormone in short prepubertal children with chronic renal failure with or without dialysis. The European/Australian Study Group. Acta Paediatr Suppl 399:81-87, 1994

413. Van Dyck M, Gyssels A, Proesmans W, Nijs J, Eeckels R: Growth hormone treatment enhances bone mineralisation in children with chronic renal failure. Eur J Pediatr 160:359-363, 2001

414. van der Sluis IM, Boot AM, Nauta J, Hop WC, de Jong MC, Lilien MR, Groothoff JW, van Wijk AE, Pols HA, Hokken-Koelega AC, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM: Bone density and body composition in chronic renal failure: effects of growth hormone treatment. Pediatr Nephrol 15:221-228, 2000

415. Lanes R, Gunczler P, Orta N, Bosquez M, Scovino R, Dominguez L, Esaa S, Weisinger JR: Changes in bone mineral density, growth velocity and renal function of prepubertal uremic children during growth hormone treatment. Horm Res 46:263-268, 1996

416. Fujisawa Y, Kida K: Effect of growth hormone (GH) therapy on parathyroid hormone metabolism in a girl with GH deficient short stature and chronic renal failure. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 9:555-558, 1996

417. Sieniawska M, Panczyk-Tomaszewska M, Ziolkowska H: The influence of growth hormone treatment on bone metabolism in dialysis patients. Br J Clin Pract Suppl 85:61-63, 1996

418. Kaufman DB: Growth hormone and renal osteodystrophy: a case report. Pediatr Nephrol 12:157-159, 1998

419. Milliner DS, Shinaberger JH, Shuman P, Coburn JW: Inadvertent aluminum administration during plasma exchange due to aluminum contamination of albumin-replacement solutions. N Engl J Med 312:165-167, 1985

420. Daly AL, Velazquez LA, Bradley SF, Kauffman CA: Mucormycosis: association with deferoxamine therapy. Am J Med 87:468-471, 1989

421. Alfrey AC: The toxicity of the aluminum burden. Semin Nephrol 3:329-334, 1983

422. Graf H, Stummvoll HK, Meisinger V, Kovarik J, Wolf A, Pinggera WF: Aluminum removal by hemodialysis. Kidney Int 19:587-592, 1981

423. Trapp GA: Plasma aluminum is bound to transferrin. Life Sci 33:311-316, 1983

424. Alfrey AC: Aluminum metabolism in uremia. Neurotoxicol 1:43-53, 1980

425. Alfrey AC, Hegg A, Craswell P: Metabolism and toxicity of aluminum in renal failure. Am J Clin Nutr 33:1509-1516, 1980

426. Alfrey AC, LeGendre GR, Kaehny WD: The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. Possible aluminum intoxication. N Engl J Med 294:184-188, 1976

427. Kerr DN, Ward MK, Arze RS, Ramos JM, Grekas D, Parkinson IS, Ellis HA, Owen JP, Simpson W, Dewar J, et al: Aluminum-induced dialysis osteodystrophy: the demise of “Newcastle bone disease”? Kidney Int Suppl 18:S58-S64, 1986

428. Ward MK, Feest TG, Ellis HA, Parkinson IS, Kerr DN: Osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy: Evidence for a water-borne aetiological agent, probably aluminium. Lancet 1:841-845, 1978

429. Parkinson IS, Ward MK, Feest TG, Fawcett RW, Kerr DN: Fracturing dialysis osteodystrophy and dialysis encephalopathy. An epidemiological survey. Lancet 1:406-409, 1979

430. Parkinson IS, Ward MK, Kerr DN: Dialysis encephalopathy, bone disease and anaemia: the aluminum intoxication syndrome during regular haemodialysis. J Clin Pathol 34:1285-1294, 1981

431. McGonigle RJ, Parsons V: Aluminium-induced anaemia in haemodialysis patients. Nephron 39:1-9, 1985

432. O'Hare JA, Murnaghan DJ: Reversal of aluminum-induced hemodialysis anemia by a low-aluminum dialysate. N Engl J Med 306:654-656, 1982

433. Berkseth RO, Shapiro FL: An epidemic of dialysis encephalopathy and exposure to high aluminum dialysate, in Controversies in Nephrology, Schreiner GE, Winchester JF (eds), Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press, 1980, pp 42-51

434. Simoes J, Barata JD, D'Haese PC, De Broe ME: Cela n'arrive qu'aux autres (aluminium intoxication only happens in the other nephrologist's dialysis centre). Nephrol Dial Transplant 9:67-68, 1994

435. LeGendre GR, Alfrey AC: Measuring picogram amounts of aluminum in biological tissue by flameless atomic absorption analysis of a chelate. Clin Chem 22:53-56, 1976

436. Bakir AA, Hryhorczuk DO, Berman E, Dunea G: Acute fatal hyperaluminemic encephalopathy in undialyzed and recently dialyzed uremic patients. ASAIO Trans 32:171-176, 1986

437. Kirschbaum BB, Schoolwerth AC: Acute aluminum toxicity associated with oral citrate and aluminum-containing antacids. Am J Med Sci 297:9-11, 1989

438. Molitoris BA, Froment DH, Mackenzie TA, Huffer WH, Alfrey AC: Citrate: a major factor in the toxicity of orally administered aluminum compounds. Kidney Int 36:949-953, 1989

439. Nolan CR, Califano JR, Butzin CA: Influence of calcium acetate or calcium citrate on intestinal aluminum absorption. Kidney Int 38:937-941, 1990

440. Sherrard DJ, Walker JV, Boykin JL: Precipitation of dialysis dementia by deferoxamine treatment of aluminum-related bone disease. Am J Kidney Dis 12:126-130, 1988

441. McCauley J, Sorkin MI: Exacerbation of aluminium encephalopathy after treatment with desferrioxamine. Nephrol Dial Transplant 4:110-114, 1989

442. Alfrey AC, Mishell JM, Burks J, Contiguglia SR, Rudolph H, Lewin E, Holmes JH: Syndrome of dyspraxia and multifocal seizures associated with chronic hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 18:257-261, 266-257, 1972

443. Dunea G, Mahurkar SD, Mamdani B, Smith EC: Role of aluminum in dialysis dementia. Ann Intern Med 88:502-504, 1978

444. Hodsman AB, Sherrard DJ, Wong EG, Brickman AS, Lee DB, Alfrey AC, Singer FR, Norman AW, Coburn JW: Vitamin-D-resistant osteomalacia in hemodialysis patients lacking secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ann Intern Med 94:629-637, 1981

445. Hodsman AB, Sherrard DJ, Alfrey AC, Ott S, Brickman AS, Miller NL, Maloney NA, Coburn JW: Bone aluminum and histomorphometric features of renal osteodystrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 54:539-546, 1982

446. Kaehny WD, Hegg AP, Alfrey AC: Gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum from aluminum-containing antacids. N Engl J Med 296:1389-1390, 1977

447. Monier-Faugere MC, Malluche HH: Trends in renal osteodystrophy: a survey from 1983 to 1995 in a total of 2248 patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:111-120, 1996 (suppl 3)

448. Puschett JB, Piraino B, Greenberg A, Rault R: Hypercalcemia in a dialysis patient. Am J Nephrol 6:388-395, 1986

449. Norris KC, Crooks PW, Nebeker HG, Hercz G, Milliner DS, Gerszi K, Slatopolsky E, Andress DL, Sherrard DJ, Coburn JW: Clinical and laboratory features of aluminum-related bone disease: differences between sporadic and “epidemic” forms of the syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis 6:342-347, 1985

450. Sherrard DJ, Ott SM, Andress DL: Pseudohyperparathyroidism. Syndrome associated with aluminum intoxication in patients with renal failure. Am J Med 79:127-130, 1985

451. Andress DL, Ott SM, Maloney NA, Sherrard DJ: Effect of parathyroidectomy on bone aluminum accumulation in chronic renal failure. N Engl J Med 312:468-473, 1985

452. Recker R, Schoenfeld P, Letteri J, Slatopolsky E, Goldsmith R, Brickman A: The efficacy of calcifediol in renal osteodystrophy. Arch Intern Med 138 Spec No:857-863, 1978

453. Kausz AT, Antonsen JE, Hercz G, Pei Y, Weiss NS, Emerson S, Sherrard DJ: Screening plasma aluminum levels in relation to aluminum bone disease among asymptomatic dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 34:688-693, 1999

454. Milliner DS, Nebeker HG, Ott SM, Andress DL, Sherrard DJ, Alfrey AC, Slatopolsky EA, Coburn JW: Use of the deferoxamine infusion test in the diagnosis of aluminum-related osteodystrophy. Ann Intern Med 101:775-779, 1984

455. Nebeker HG, Andress DL, Milliner DS, Ott SM, Alfrey AC, Slatopolsky EA, Sherrard DJ, Coburn JW: Indirect methods for the diagnosis of aluminum bone disease: plasma aluminum, the desferrioxamine infusion test, and serum iPTH. Kidney Int Suppl 18:S96-S99, 1986

456. Malluche HH, Smith AJ, Abreo K, Faugere MC: The use of deferoxamine in the management of aluminium accumulation in bone in patients with renal failure. N Engl J Med 311:140-144, 1984

457. Fournier A, Fohrer P, Leflon P, Moriniere P, Tolani M, Lambrey G, Demontis R, Sebert JL, Van Devyver F, Debroe M: The desferrioxamine test predicts bone aluminium burden induced by A1(OH)3 in uraemic patients but not mild histological osteomalacia. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc Eur Ren Assoc 21:371-376, 1985

458. Ott SM, Maloney NA, Coburn JW, Alfrey AC, Sherrard DJ: The prevalence of bone aluminum deposition in renal osteodystrophy and its relation to the response to calcitriol therapy. N Engl J Med 307:709-713, 1982

459. Andress DL, Maloney NA, Coburn JW, Endres DB, Sherrard DJ: Osteomalacia and aplastic bone disease in aluminum-related osteodystrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 65:11-16, 1987

460. Andress DL, Nebeker HG, Ott SM, Endres DB, Alfrey AC, Slatopolsky EA, Coburn JW, Sherrard DJ: Bone histologic response to deferoxamine in aluminum-related bone disease. Kidney Int 31:1344-1350, 1987

461. Pei Y, Hercz G, Greenwood C, Sherrard D, Segre G, Manuel A, Saiphoo C, Fenton S: Non-invasive prediction of aluminum bone disease in hemo- and peritoneal dialysis patients. Kidney Int 41:1374-1382, 1992

462. Alfrey AC: Aluminum metabolism. Kidney Int Suppl 18:S8-S11, 1986

463. Bene C, Manzler A, Bene D, Kranias G: Irreversible ocular toxicity from single “challenge” dose of deferoxamine. Clin Nephrol 31:45-48, 1989

464. Pengloan J, Dantal J, Rossazza C, Abazza M, Nivet H: Ocular toxicity after a single intravenous dose of desferrioxamine in 2 hemodialyzed patients. Nephron 46:211-212, 1987

465. Boelaert JR, Fenves AZ, Coburn JW: Deferoxamine therapy and mucormycosis in dialysis patients: report of an international registry. Am J Kidney Dis 18:660-667, 1991

466. D'Haese PC, Couttenye MM, Goodman WG, Lemoniatou E, Digenis P, Sotornik I, Fagalde A, Barsoum RS, Lamberts LV, De Broe ME: Use of the low-dose desferrioxamine test to diagnose and differentiate between patients with aluminium-related bone disease, increased risk for aluminium toxicity, or aluminium overload. Nephrol Dial Transplant 10:1874-1884, 1995

467. Canteros A, Diaz-Corte C, Fernandez-Martin JL, Gago E, Fernandez-Merayo C, Cannata J: Ultrafiltrable aluminium after very low doses of desferrioxamine. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:1538-1542, 1998

468. Jorge C, Gil C, Possante M, Catarino MC, Cruz A, Andrade R, Teixeira R, Santos N, Ferreira A: Use of a desferrioxamine “microdose” to chelate aluminum in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 52:335-336, 1999

469. Salusky IB, Coburn JW, Paunier L, Sherrard DJ, Fine RN: Role of aluminum hydroxide in raising serum aluminum levels in children undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Pediatr 105:717-720, 1984

470. Rozas VV, Port FK, Rutt WM: Progressive dialysis encephalopathy from dialysate aluminum. Arch Intern Med 138:1375-1377, 1978

471. Burwen DR, Olsen SM, Bland LA, Arduino MJ, Reid MH, Jarvis WR: Epidemic aluminum intoxication in hemodialysis patients traced to use of an aluminum pump. Kidney Int 48:469-474, 1995

472. D'Haese PC, Clement JP, Elseviers MM, Lamberts LV, Van de Vyver FL, Visser WJ, De Broe ME: Value of serum aluminium monitoring in dialysis patients: a multicentre study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 5:45-53, 1990

473. Pei Y, Hercz G, Greenwood C, Segre G, Manuel A, Saiphoo C, Fenton S, Sherrard D: Risk factors for renal osteodystrophy: a multivariant analysis. J Bone Miner Res 10:149-156, 1995

474. Heaf JG, Podenphant J, Andersen JR: Bone aluminum deposition in maintenance dialysis patients treated with aluminium-free dialysate: role of aluminium hydroxide consumption. Nephron 42:210-216, 1986

475. Channon SM, Arfeen S, Ward MK: Long-term accumulation of aluminum in patients with renal failure. Trace Elements Med 5:147-157, 1988

476. Costantini S, Giordano R, Vernillo I, Piccioni A, Zapponi GA: Predictive value of serum aluminium levels for bone accumulation in haemodialyzed patients. Ann Ist Super Sanita 25:457-461, 1989

477. Sherrard DJ: Aluminum–much ado about something. N Engl J Med 324:558-559, 1991

478. Cases A, Kelly J, Sabater J, Campistol JM, Torras A, Montoliu J, Lopez I, Revert L: Acute visual and auditory neurotoxicity in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving desferrioxamine. Clin Nephrol 29:176-178, 1988

479. Janssen MJ, van Boven WP: Efficacy of low-dose desferrioxamine for the estimation of aluminium overload in haemodialysis patients. Pharm World Sci 18:187-191, 1996

480. Ott SM, Andress DL, Nebeker HG, Milliner DS, Maloney NA, Coburn JW, Sherrard DJ: Changes in bone histology after treatment with desferrioxamine. Kidney Int Suppl 18:S108-S113, 1986

481. Faugere MC, Arnala IO, Ritz E, Malluche HH: Loss of bone resulting from accumulation of aluminum in bone of patients undergoing dialysis. J Lab Clin Med 107:481-487, 1986

482. Charhon SA, Chavassieux P, Boivin G, Parisien M, Chapuy MC, Traeger J, Meunier PJ: Deferoxamine-induced bone changes in haemodialysis patients: a histomorphometric study. Clin Sci (Lond) 73:227-234, 1987

483. Bia MJ, Cooper K, Schnall S, Duffy T, Hendler E, Malluche H, Solomon L: Aluminum induced anemia: pathogenesis and treatment in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Kidney Int 36:852-858, 1989

484. Felsenfeld AJ, Rodriguez M, Coleman M, Ross D, Llach F: Desferrioxamine therapy in hemodialysis patients with aluminum-associated bone disease. Kidney Int 35:1371-1378, 1989

485. McCarthy JT, Milliner DS, Johnson WJ: Clinical experience with desferrioxamine in dialysis patients with aluminium toxicity. Q J Med 74:257-276, 1990

486. Ackrill P, Ralston AJ, Day JP, Hodge KC: Successful removal of aluminium from patient with dialysis encephalopathy. Lancet 2:692-693, 1980

487. Hood SA, Clark WF, Hodsman AB, Bolton CF, Cordy PE, Anderson C, Leung F: Successful treatment of dialysis osteomalacia and dementia, using desferrioxamine infusions and oral 1-alpha hydroxycholecalciferol. Am J Nephrol 4:369-374, 1984

488. Milne FJ, Sharf B, Bell P, Meyers AM: The effect of low aluminum water and desferrioxamine on the outcome of dialysis encephalopathy. Clin Nephrol 20:202-207, 1983

489. Sprague SM, Corwin HL, Wilson RS, Mayor GH, Tanner CM: Encephalopathy in chronic renal failure responsive to deferoxamine therapy. Another manifestation of aluminum neurotoxicity. Arch Intern Med 146:2063-2064, 1986

490. Ackrill P, Ralston AJ, Day JP: Role of desferrioxamine in the treatment of dialysis encephalopathy. Kidney Int Suppl 18:S104-S107, 1986

491. Altmann P, Plowman D, Marsh F, Cunningham J: Aluminium chelation therapy in dialysis patients: evidence for inhibition of haemoglobin synthesis by low levels of aluminium. Lancet 1:1012-1015, 1988

492. von Bonsdorff M, Sipila R, Pitkanen E: Correction of haemodialysis-associated anaemia by deferoxamine. Effects on serum aluminum and iron overload. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 131:49-54, 1990

493. Van Cutsem J, Boelaert JR: Effects of deferoxamine, feroxamine and iron on experimental mucormycosis (zygomycosis). Kidney Int 36:1061-1068, 1989

494. Boelaert JR, de Locht M, Van Cutsem J, Kerrels V, Cantinieaux B, Verdonck A, Van Landuyt HW, Schneider YJ: Mucormycosis during deferoxamine therapy is a siderophore-mediated infection. In vitro and in vivo animal studies. J Clin Invest 91:1979-1986, 1993

495. Windus DW, Stokes TJ, Julian BA, Fenves AZ: Fatal Rhizopus infections in hemodialysis patients receiving deferoxamine. Ann Intern Med 107:678-680, 1987

496. Boelaert JR, Vergauwe PL, Vandepitte JM: Mucormycosis infection in dialysis patients. Ann Intern Med 107:782-783, 1987

497. De Broe ME, Drueke TB, Ritz E: Consensus Conference: Diagnosis and treatment of aluminum overload in end-stage renal failure patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8:1-4, 1993 (suppl 1)

498. Hercz G, Andress DL, Nebeker HG, Shinaberger JH, Sherrard DJ, Coburn JW: Reversal of aluminum-related bone disease after substituting calcium carbonate for aluminum hydroxide. Am J Kidney Dis 11:70-75, 1988

499. Hercz G, Andress DL, Norris KC, Shinaberger JH, Slatopolsky EA, Sherrard DJ, Coburn JW: Improved bone formation in dialysis patients after substitution of calcium carbonate for aluminum gels. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 100:139-146, 1987

500. Adhemar JP, Laederich J, Jaudon MC, Masselot JP, Galli A, Kleinknecht D: Removal of aluminium from patients with dialysis encephalopathy. Lancet 2:1311, 1980

501. Arze RS, Parkinson IS, Cartlidge NE, Britton P, Ward MK: Reversal of aluminium dialysis encephalopathy after desferrioxamine treatment. Lancet 2:1116, 1981

502. Pogglitsch H, Petek W, Wawschinek O, Holzer W: Treatment of early stages of dialysis encephalopathy by aluminium depletion. Lancet 2:1344-1345, 1981

503. Molitoris BA, Alfrey AC, Alfrey PS, Miller NL: Rapid removal of DFO-chelated aluminum during hemodialysis using polysulfone dialyzers. Kidney Int 34:98-101, 1988

504. Delmez J, Weerts C, Lewis-Finch J, Windus D, Slatopolsky E: Accelerated removal of deferoxamine mesylate-chelated aluminum by charcoal hemoperfusion in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 13:308-311, 1989

505. Vasilakakis DM, D'Haese PC, Lamberts LV, Lemoniatou E, Digenis PN, De Broe ME: Removal of aluminoxamine and ferrioxamine by charcoal hemoperfusion and hemodialysis. Kidney Int 41:1400-1407, 1992

506. Hercz G, Salusky IB, Norris KC, Fine RN, Coburn JW: Aluminum removal by peritoneal dialysis: intravenous vs. intraperitoneal deferoxamine. Kidney Int 30:944-948, 1986

507. Molitoris BA, Alfrey PS, Miller NL, Hasbargen JA, Kaehney WD, Alfrey AC, Smith BJ: Efficacy of intramuscular and intraperitoneal deferoxamine for aluminum chelation. Kidney Int 31:986-991, 1987

508. Barata JD, D'Haese PC, Pires C, Lamberts LV, Simoes J, De Broe ME: Low-dose (5 mg/kg) desferrioxamine treatment in acutely aluminium-intoxicated haemodialysis patients using two drug administration schedules. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:125-132, 1996

509. Widmer B, Gerhardt RE, Harrington JT, Cohen JJ: Serum electrolyte and acid base composition. The influence of graded degrees of chronic renal failure. Arch Intern Med 139:1099-1102, 1979

510. Eiser AR, Slifkin RF, Neff MS: Intestinal mucormycosis in hemodialysis patients following deferoxamine. Am J Kidney Dis 10:71-73, 1987

511. Veis JH, Contiguglia R, Klein M, Mishell J, Alfrey AC, Shapiro JI: Mucormycosis in deferoxamine-treated patients on dialysis. Ann Intern Med 107:258, 1987

512. Boelaert JR, Van Cutsem J, de Locht M, Schneider YJ, Crichton RR: Deferoxamine augments growth and pathogenicity of Rhizopus, while hydroxypyridinone chelators have no effect. Kidney Int 45:667-671, 1994

513. Coburn JW, Maung HM: Mucormycosis in dialysis patients, in Sweny P, Rubin RH, Tolkoff-Rubin N (eds), London, Oxford University Press, 2002

514. Salusky IB, Goodman WG: Adynamic renal osteodystrophy: is there a problem? J Am Soc Nephrol 12:1978-1985, 2001

515. Malluche HH, Monier-Faugere MC: Risk of adynamic bone disease in dialyzed patients. Kidney Int Suppl 38:S62-S67, 1992

516. Atsumi K, Kushida K, Yamazaki K, Shimizu S, Ohmura A, Inoue T: Risk factors for vertebral fractures in renal osteodystrophy. Am J Kidney Dis 33:287-293, 1999

517. Coco M, Rush H: Increased incidence of hip fractures in dialysis patients with low serum parathyroid hormone. Am J Kidney Dis 36:1115-1121, 2000

518. D'Amour P, Huet PM: Ca2+ concentration influences the hepatic extraction of bioactive human PTH-(1-34) in rats. Am J Physiol 256:E87-E92, 1989

519. Chou FF, Chan HM, Huang TJ, Lee CH, Hsu KT: Autotransplantation of parathyroid glands into subcutaneous forearm tissue for renal hyperparathyroidism. Surgery 124:1-5, 1998

520. Kostakis A, Vaiopoulos G, Kostantopoulos K, Zavos G, Bocos I, Sgouromalis S: Parathyroidectomy in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure. Int Surg 82:85-86, 1997

521. Gasparri G, Camandona M, Jeantet A, Nano M, Desimone M, Bronda M, Deipoli M: Results after 223 parathyroidectomies for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Acta Chir Austriaca 28:32-34, 1996 (suppl 124)

522. Neonakis E, Wheeler MH, Krishnan H, Coles GA, Davies F, Woodhead JS: Results of surgical treatment of renal hyperparathyroidism. Arch Surg 130:643-648, 1995

523. Gagne ER, Urena P, Leite-Silva S, Zingraff J, Chevalier A, Sarfati E, Dubost C, Drueke TB: Short- and long-term efficacy of total parathyroidectomy with immediate autografting compared with subtotal parathyroidectomy in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:1008-1017, 1992

524. Takagi H, Tominaga Y, Uchida K, Yamada N, Kawai M, Kano T, Morimoto T: Subtotal versus total parathyroidectomy with forearm autograft for secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure. Ann Surg 200:18-23, 1984

525. Esselstyn CB Jr, Popowniak KL: Parathyroid surgery in the treatment of renal osteodystrophy and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Surg Clin North Am 51:1211-1217, 1971

526. Olaizola I, Zingraff J, Heuguerot C, Fajardo L, Leger A, Lopez J, Acuna G, Petraglia A, Alvarez A, Caorsi H, Drueke T, Ambrosoni P: [(99m)Tc]-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy in chronic haemodialysis patients: static and dynamic explorations. Nephrol Dial Transplant 15:1201-1206, 2000

527. Neumann DR, Esselstyn CB, Jr., Madera A, Wong CO, Lieber M: Parathyroid detection in secondary hyperparathyroidism with 123I/99mTc-sestamibi subtraction single photon emission computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:3867-3871, 1998

528. Blocklet D, Martin P, Schoutens A, Verhas M, Hooghe L, Kinnaert P: Presurgical localization of abnormal parathyroid glands using a single injection of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: comparison of different techniques including factor analysis of dynamic structures. Eur J Nucl Med 24:46-51, 1997

529. Tanaka Y, Tominaga Y, Funahashi H, Sato K, Numano M, Takagi H: Preoperative localization studies in secondary hyperplasia. Acta Chir Austriaca 28:14-16, 1996 (suppl 124)

530. Hindie E, Urena P, Jeanguillaume C, Melliere D, Berthelot JM, Menoyo-Calonge V, Chiappini-Briffa D, Janin A, Galle P: Preoperative imaging of parathyroid glands with technetium-99m-labelled sestamibi and iodine-123 subtraction scanning in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Lancet 353:2200-2204, 1999

531. Ishibashi M, Nishida H, Okuda S, Suekane S, Hayabuchi N: Localization of parathyroid glands in hemodialysis patients using Tc-99m sestamibi imaging. Nephron 78:48-53, 1998

532. Jeanguillaume C, Urena P, Hindie E, Prieur P, Petrover M, Menoyo-Calonge V, Janin A, Chiappini-Briffa D, Melliere D, Boulahdour H, Galle P: Secondary hyperparathyroidism: detection with I-123-Tc-99m-Sestamibi subtraction scintigraphy versus US. Radiology 207:207-213, 1998

533. Chesser AM, Carroll MC, Lightowler C, Macdougall IC, Britton KE, Baker LR: Technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) imaging of the parathyroid glands in patients with renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 12:97-100, 1997

534. Pons F, Torregrosa JV, Vidal-Sicart S, Sabater L, Fuster D, Fernandez-Cruz L, Herranz R: Preoperative parathyroid gland localization with technetium-99m sestamibi in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Eur J Nucl Med 24:1494-1498, 1997

535. Takebayashi S, Matsui K, Onohara Y, Hidai H: Sonography for early diagnosis of enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. AJR Am J Roentgenol 148:911-914, 1987

536. Fabretti F, Calabrese V, Fornasari V, Poletti I: Subtotal parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure. J Laryngol Otol 105:562-567, 1991

537. Tomic Brzac H, Pavlovic D, Halbauer M, Pasini J: Parathyroid sonography in secondary hyperparathyroidism: correlation with clinical findings. Nephrol Dial Transplant 4:45-50, 1989

538. Takagi H, Tominaga Y, Uchida K, Yamada N, Ishii T, Morimoto T, Yasue M: Preoperative diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism using computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 6:527-528, 1982

539. Fukagawa M, Kitaoka M, Tominaga Y, Akizawa T, Kurokawa K: Selective percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) of the parathyroid in chronic dialysis patients–the Japanese strategy. Japanese Working Group on PEIT of Parathyroid, Tokyo, Japan. Nephrol Dial Transplant 14:2574-2577, 1999

540. Domrongkitchaiporn S, Pongsakul C, Stitchantrakul W, Sirikulchayanonta V, Ongphiphadhanakul B, Radinahamed P, Karnsombut P, Kunkitti N, Ruang-raksa C, Rajatanavin R: Bone mineral density and histology in distal renal tubular acidosis. Kidney Int 59:1086-1093, 2001

541. McSherry E, Morris RC Jr: Attainment and maintenance of normal stature with alkali therapy in infants and children with classic renal tubular acidosis. J Clin Invest 61:509-527, 1978

542. Coen G, Mazzaferro S, Ballanti P, Sardella D, Chicca S, Manni M, Bonucci E, Taggi F: Renal bone disease in 76 patients with varying degrees of predialysis chronic renal failure: a cross-sectional study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:813-819, 1996

543. Parfitt AM, Kleerekoper M, Cruz C: Reduced phosphate reabsorption unrelated to parathyroid hormone after renal transplantation: implications for the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab 12:356-362, 1986

544. Ambuhl PM, Meier D, Wolf B, Dydak U, Boesiger P, Binswanger U: Metabolic aspects of phosphate replacement therapy for hypophosphatemia after renal transplantation: impact on muscular phosphate content, mineral metabolism, and acid/base homeostasis. Am J Kidney Dis 34:875-83, 1999

545. Giannini S, D'Angelo A, Carraro G, Antonello A, Di Landro D, Marchini F, Plebani M, Zaninotto M, Rigotti P, Sartori L, Crepaldi G: Persistently increased bone turnover and low bone density in long-term survivors to kidney transplantation. Clin Nephrol 56:353-363, 2001

546. Cayco AV, Wysolmerski J, Simpson C, Mitnick MA, Gundberg C, Kliger A, Lorber M, Silver D, Basadonna G, Friedman A, Insogna K, Cruz D, Bia M: Posttransplant bone disease: evidence for a high bone resorption state. Transplantation 70:1722-1728, 2000

547. Lane NE, Lukert B: The science and therapy of glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 27:465-483, 1998

548. Erben RG, Bante U, Birner H, Stangassinger M: 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2 partially dissociates between preservation of cancellous bone mass and effects on calcium homeostasis in ovariectomized rats. Calcif Tissue Int 60:449-456, 1997

549. Feber J, Braillon P, David L, Cochat P: Body composition in children after renal transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 38:366-370, 2001

550. Feber J, Cochat P, Braillon P: Bone mineral density in children after renal transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol 14:654-657, 2000

551. Ellis EN, Floyd-Gimon DM, Berry PL, Wells TG, Seibert J, Belsha C: Risk factors for bone mineral density loss in pediatric renal transplant patients. Pediatr Transplant 4:146-150, 2000

552. Chesney RW, Rose PG, Mazess RB: Persistence of diminished bone mineral content following renal transplantation in childhood. Pediatrics 73:459-466, 1984

553. Zimakas PJ, Sharma AK, Rodd CJ: Osteopenia and fractures in cystinotic children post renal transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol 18:384-390, 2003

554. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, Kempler S, Nguyen T, Pocock N, Eisman J: Prevention of corticosteroid osteoporosis. A comparison of calcium, calcitriol, and calcitonin. N Engl J Med 328:1747-1752, 1993

555. Adachi JD, Bensen WG, Bianchi F, Cividino A, Pillersdorf S, Sebaldt RJ, Tugwell P, Gordon M, Steele M, Webber C, Goldsmith CH: Vitamin D and calcium in the prevention of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis: a 3 year followup. J Rheumatol 23:995-1000, 1996

556. De Sevaux RG, Hoitsma AJ, Corstens FH, Wetzels JF: Treatment with vitamin D and calcium reduces bone loss after renal transplantation: a randomized study. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:1608-1614, 2002

557. Harris AF, Cotty VF: The effect of lanthanum chloride and related compounds on calcification. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 186:269-278, 1970