NKF K/DOQI GUIDELINES 2000
 
 
GUIDELINES FOR HEMODIALYSIS ADEQUACY

VII. References

1. USRDS: Excerpts from the United States Renal Data System 1998 Annual Data Report. Incidence and prevalence of ESRD. Am J Kidney Dis 32:S38-S49, 1998 (suppl 1)

2. USRDS: Excerpts from the United States Renal Data System 1998 Annual Data Report. Treatment modalities for ESRD patients. Am J Kidney Dis 32:S50-S59, 1998 (suppl 1)

3. Held PJ, Akiba T, Stearns NS, Marumo F, Turene MN, Maeda K, Port FK: Survival of middle aged dialysis patients in Japan and the US, 1988-89, in Friedman EA (ed): Death on Hemodialysis: Preventable or Inevitable? Boston, MA, Kluwer Academic, 1994, pp 13-23

4. Hull AR, Parker TF III: Proceedings from the Morbidity, Mortality and Prescription of Dialysis Symposium, Dallas, TX , September 15 to 17, 1989. Am J Kidney Dis 15:375-383, 1990

5. Held PJ, Brunner F, Odaka M, Garcia JR, Port FK, Gaylin DS: Five year survival for end stage renal patients in the United States, Europe, and Japan, 1982 to 1987. Am J Kidney Dis 15:451-457, 1990

6. USRDS: Excerpts from the United States Renal Data System 1998 Annual Data Report. Patient mortality and survival. Am J Kidney Dis 32:S69-S80, 1998 (suppl 1)

7. USRDS: Excerpts from the United States Renal Data System 1998 Annual Data Report. International comparisons of ESRD therapy. Am J Kidney Dis 32:S136-S141, 1998 (suppl 1)

8. Marcelli D, Stannard D, Conte F, Held PJ, Locatelli F, Port FK: ESRD patient mortality with adjustment for comorbid conditions in Lombardy (Italy) versus the United States. Kidney Int 50:1013-1018, 1996

9. Collins AJ, Hanson G, Umen A, Kjellstrand C, Keshaviah P: Changing risk factor demographics in end-stage renal disease patients entering hemodialysis and the impact on long-term mortality. Am J Kidney Dis 15:422-432, 1990

10. Keane WF, Collins AJ: Influence of co-morbidity on mortality and morbidity in patients treated with hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 24:1010-1018, 1994

11. Wong JS, Port FK, Hulbert-Shearon TE, Caroll CE, Wolfe RA, Agodoa L, Daugirdas JT: Survival advantage in Asian-American end-stage renal disease patients. Kidney Int 55:2515-2523, 1999 - Full Text

12. Agodoa L, Wolfe RA, Port FK: Reuse of dialyzers and clinical outcomes: fact or fiction. Am J Kidney Dis 6:S88-S92, 1998 (suppl 4)

13. Shaldon S: Unanswered questions pertaining to dialysis adequacy in 1992. Kidney Int 41:S274-S277, 1993

14. Hull AR: Predictors of the excessive mortality rates of dialysis patients in the United States. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 3:286-291, 1994

15. Feldman HI, Kinosian M, Bilker WB, Simmons C, Holmes JH, Pauly MV, Escarce JJ: Effect of dialyzer reuse on survival of patients treated with hemodialysis. JAMA 276:620-625, 1996

16. Collins AJ, Ma JZ, Constantini EG, Everson SE: Dialysis unit and patient characteristics associated with reuse practices and mortality: 1989-1993. J Am Soc Nephrol 9:2108-2117, 1998

17. Tokars JI, Miller ER, Alter MJ, Arduino MJ: National surveillance of dialysis associated diesases in the United States. ASAIO J 44:98-107, 1998 - No Abstract Available

18. Lowrie EG, Lew NL: Death risk in hemodialysis patients: The predictive value of commonly measured variables and an evaluation of death rate differences between facilities. Am J Kidney Dis 15:458-482, 1990

19. Owen WF, Lew NL, Liu Y, Lowrie EG, Lazarus JM: The urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration as predictors of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 329:1001-1006, 1993 - Full Text

20. Kopple JD: Dietary protein and energy requirements in ESRD patients. Am J Kidney Dis 32:S97-S104, 1998 (suppl 4)

21. Dwyer JT, Curvoiff PJ, Mareni BJ, Kopple JD, Burrowes JD, Powers SN, Cockram DB, Chumteo WC, Kusek JM, Makoff R, Goldstein DJ, Paramandi L: The Hemodialysis Pilot Study: Nutrition program and participant characteristics at baseline. J Renal Nutr 8:11-20, 1998

22. Locatelli F, Marcelli D, Conte F: Dialysis patient outcomes in Europe versus the USA. Why do Europeans live longer? Nephrol Dial Transplant 12:1816-1819, 1997 - No Abstract Available

23. USRDS 1992 Annual Report Data: Comorbid conditions and correlations with mortality risk among 3,399 incident hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 20:S32-S38, 1992 (suppl 2)

24. Kjellstrand CM: International comparisons of dialysis survival are meaningless to evaluate differences in dialysis procedures, in Friedman EA (ed): Death on Hemodialysis: Preventable or Inevitable? Boston, MA, Kluwer Academic, 1994, pp 55-68

25. Wolfe RA, Mauger A, Held PJ, Golper T, Sarsitis I, Woods JD, Agodoa LYC, Port FK: Patient mix and mortality in chronic hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 6:568A, 1995 (abstr)

26. Held PJ, Blagg CR, Liska DW, Port FK, Hakim R, Levin N: The dose of hemodialysis according to dialysis prescription in Europe and the United States. Kidney Int Suppl 42:S16-S21, 1992

27. Held PJ, Levin NW, Bovbjerg RR, Pauly MV, Diamond LH: Mortality and duration of hemodialysis treatment. JAMA 265:871-875, 1991

28. Parker TF, Husni L: Delivering the prescribed dialysis. Semin Dial 6:13-15, 1993

29. Owen WF: Status of hemodialysis adequacy in the United States. Does it account for improved patient survival? Am J Kidney Dis 32:S39-S43, 1998 (suppl 4)

30. Port FK, Orzol SM, Held PJ, Wolfe RA: Trends in treatment and survival for hemodialysis patients in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis 32:S34-S38, 1998 (suppl 4)

31. Health Care Financing Administration: 1998 Annual Report, End Stage Renal Disease Core Indicators Project. Baltimore, MD, Department of Health and Human Services, Health Care Financing Administration, Office of Clinical Standards and Quality, December 1998

32. Bleyer AJ, Hylander B, Sudo S, Nomoto Y, de la Torre E, Chen RA, Burkart JM: An international study of patient compliance with hemodialysis. JAMA 281:1211-1213, 1999

33. Collins AJ, Ma JZ, Umen A, Keshaviah P: Urea index and other predictors of hemodialysis patient survival. Am J Kidney Dis 23:272-282, 1994

34. Lowrie EG, Laird NM, Parker TF, Sargent JA: Effect of the hemodialysis prescription on patient morbidity. N Engl J Med 305:1176-1180, 1981

35. Hakim RM: Assessing the adequacy of dialysis. Kidney Int 37:822-832, 1990 - No Abstract Available

36. Hakim RM, Breyer J, Ismail N, Schulman G: Effects of dose of dialysis on morbidity and mortality. Am J Kidney Dis 23:661-669, 1994

37. Acchiardo SR, Hatten KW, Ruvinsky MJ, Dyson B, Fuller J, Moore LW: Inadequate dialysis increases gross mortality rate. ASAIO J 38:M282-M285, 1992

38. Lowrie EG: Chronic dialysis treatment: Clinical outcome and related processes of care. Am J Kidney Dis 24:255-266, 1994

39. Fernandez JM, Carbonell ME, Mazzuchi N, Petruccelli D: Simultaneous analysis of morbidity and mortality factors in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 41:1029-1034, 1992

40. Held PJ, Port FK, Wolfe RA, Stannard DC, Carroll CE, Daugirdas JT, Greer JW, Hakim RM: The dose of hemodialysis and patient mortality. Kidney Int 50:550-556, 1996

41. Parker T, Husni L, Huang W, Lew N, Lowrie EG, Dallas Nephrology Associates: Survival of hemodialysis patients in the United States is improved with a greater quantity of dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 23:670-680, 1994

42. Gotch F, Levin NW, Port FK, Wolfe RA, Uehlinger E: Clinical outcome relative to the dose of dialysis is not what you think: the fallacy of the mean. Am J Kidney Dis 30:1-15, 1997

43. Wildeboor J: 1995 ESRD Assessment Project, Network 16. A description of adult, in-center hemodialysis units in a five state network and their capacity to provide adquate dialyisis. Seattle, WA, Health Care Financing Association, 1995, pp1-16

44. Daugirdas JT: Second generation logarithmic estimates of single-pool variable volume Kt/V: An analysis of error. J Am Soc Nephrol 4:1205-1213, 1993

45. Flanigan MJ, Fangman J, Lim VS: Quantitating hemodialysis: A comparison of three kinetic models. Am J Kidney Dis 17:295-302, 1991

46. Daugirdas JT: Simplified equations for monitoring Kt/V, PCRn, eKt/V, and ePCRn. Adv Ren Replacement Ther 2:295, 1995

47. Gotch FA: Kinetic modeling in hemodialysis, in Nissenson AR, Fine RN, Gentile DE (eds): Clinical Dialysis (ed 3). Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1995, pp 156-189

48. Gotch FA, Sargent JA: A mechanistic analysis of the National Cooperative Dialysis Study (NCDS). Kidney Int 28:526-534, 1985

49. Depner T, Beck G, Daugirdas J, Kusek J, Eknoyan G: Lessons from the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study: An improved measure of the actual hemodialysis dose. Am J Kidney Dis 33:142-149, 1999

50. Kloppenburg WD, Stegman CA, Hooyschuur M, Van Der Ven J, DeJong PE, Huisman RM: Assessing dialysis adequacy and dietary intake in the individual hemodialysis patient. Kidney Int 55:1961-1969, 1999 - Full Text

51. Renal Physician’s Association Clinical Practice Guideline Working Committee: Renal Physician’s Association. Practice Guideline on Adequacy of Hemodialysis. Clinical Practice Guideline, Number 1. Dubuque, IA, Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 1996

52. Hemodialysis Adequacy Work Group: NKF-DOQI clinical practice guidelines for hemodialysis adequacy. Am J Kidney Dis 30:S15-S66, 1997 (suppl 2)

53. Sehgal A, Snow RJ, Sinder ME, Amini SB, DeOreo PB, Silver MR., Cebul RD: Barriers to adequate delivery of hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 31:593-601, 1998

54. Coyne DW, Delmez J, Spence G, Windus DW: Impaired delivery of hemodialysis prescriptions: an analysis of causes and an appropach to evaluation. J Am Soc Nephrol 8:1315-1318, 1997

55. Frankenfield D, McClellan WM, Helgerson SD, Lowrie EG, Rocco M, Owen WF: Relationship between urea reduction ratio, demographic characteristics, and body weight for patients in 1996 National ESRD Core Indicators Project. Am J Kidney Dis 33:584-591, 1999

56. Ifudu O, Mayers JD, Matthew JJ, Fowler AM, Homel P, Friedman EA: Standardized hemodialysis prescriptions promote inadequate treatment in patients with large body mass. Ann Intern Med 128:451-454, 1998

57. Owen WF, Chertow G, Lazarus JM, Lowrie EG: The dose of hemodialysis: Mortality responses by race and gender. JAMA 280:1-6, 1998

58. Depner T: Assessing the adequacy of hemodialysis: Urea modeling. Kidney Int 45:1522-1535, 1994 - No Abstract Available

59. Hakim RM, Depner TA, Parker TF III: Adequacy of hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 20:107-123, 1992

60. Sargent JA: Shortfalls in the delivery of dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 15:500-510, 1990

61. Ikizler TA, Schulman G: Adequacy of dialysis. Kidney Int 52:S96-S100, 1997 (suppl 62)

62. Owen WF, Meyer KA, Schmidt G, Alfred H, and the Medical Review Board of New England: Methodological limitations of quality surveys in the ESRD program. Am J Kidney Dis 30:349-355, 1997

63. Szczech LA, Lowrie E, Li Z, Lazarus, JM, Lew NL, Owen WF: Changing hemodialysis thresholds for optimal survival. Kidney Int 2001 Feb;59(2):738-45 - Full Text

64. Beto JA, Bansal VK, Ing TS, Daugirdas JT, Council on Renal Nutrition Collaborative Group: Variation in blood sample collection for determination of hemodailysis adequacy. Am J Kidney Dis 31:135-141, 1998

65. USRDS: Excerpts from the United States Renal Data System 1998 Annual Data Report. Pediatric end stage renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 32:S98-108, 1998 (suppl 1)

66. US Renal Data Systems. The USRDS dialysis morbidity and mortality study (wave 1). National Institute of Health, National Institute Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Annual Data Report 1996. Bethesda, MD, 1996, pp 45-67

67. Pedrini LA, Zereik S, Rasmy S: Causes, kinetics and clinical implications of post-hemodialysis urea rebound. Kidney Int 34:817-824, 1988

68. Daugirdas JT, Schneditz D, Leehey DJ: Effect of access recirculation on the modeled urea distribution volume. Am J Kidney Dis 27:512-518, 1996

69. Ogden DA, Friedl MM: Simultaneous reprocessing of hollow fiber dialyzers and blood tubing sets for multiple use. Dial Transplant 13:366-375, 1984

70. Ing TS, et al: NKF report on dialyzer reuse. Am J Kidney Dis 1997

71. Tokars J, Alter MJ, Favero MS, Moyer LA, Miller E, Bland LA: National surveillance of dialysis associated disease in the United States, 1994. ASAIO J 42:119-129, 1996

72. Sherman RA, Cody RP, Rogers ME, Solanchick JC: The effect of dialyzer reuse on dialysis delivery. Am J Kidney Dis 24:924-926, 1994

73. Dialyzers Transport Properties and Germicidal Elution. Seminar on the Reuse of Hemodialyzers and Automated and Manual Methods. New York, NY, National Nephrology Foundation, 1984

74. Farrell PC, Eschbach JW, Vizzo JE, Babb AL: Hemodialyzer reuse: estimation of urea loss from clearance data. Kidney Int 5:446-450, 1974 - No Abstract Available

75. Deane N, Beamis JA: Multiple use of hemodialyzers (a report to the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Disease). New York, NY, Manhatttan Kidney Center, 1981, Report NO1-AM-914

76. Association for Advancement of Medical Information (AAMI). Standards and recommended practices for reuse of hemodialyzers. AAMI. ANSI/AAMI RD 47, 1993, pp106-107

77. Rocco MV, Burkart JM: Prevalence of missed treatments and early sign-offs in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 1993;4(5):1178-83, 1993

78. Leggat JE, Orzol SM, Hulbert-Shearon TE, Golper TA, Jones CA, Held PJ, Port FK: Noncompliance in hemodialysis patients: predictors and survival analysis. Am J Kidney Dis 32:139-145, 1998

79. Dialysis by the numbers. US News and World Report; February 14, 1994

80. Owen WF: Personal communication, 2000.

81. Ifudu O, Mayers JD, Matthew JJ, Fowler AM, Homel P, Friedman EA: Standardized hemodialysis prescriptions promote inadequate treatment in patients with large body mass. Ann Intern Med 128:451-454, 1998

82. Health Care Financing Administration: 1999 Annual Report, End Stage Renal Disease Clinical Performance Measures Project. Baltimore, MD, Department of Health and Human Services, Health Care Financing Administration, Office of Clinical Standards and Quality (in press)

83. Yeun JY, Depner T: Principles of hemodialysis, in Owen WF, Pereira BJG, Sayegh M (eds): Dialysis and Transplantation (ed 1). Philadelphia, PA, Saunders, 2000

84. Schoels M, Jahn B, Hug F, Deppisch R, Ritz E, Hansch GM: Stimulation of mononuclear cells by contact with cuprophan membranes: Further increase of beta 2-microglobulin synthesis by activated late complement components. Am J Kidney Dis 21:394-399, 1993

85. van Ypersele de Strihou, Jadoul M, Malghem J: Effect of dialyis membrane and a patient’s age on signs of dialysis-related amyloidosis. the Working party on Dialysis Amyloidosis. Kidney Int 39:1012-1019, 1991

86. Koch KM: Dialysis-related amyloidosis (clinical conference). Kidney Int 41:1416-1429, 1992 - No Abstract Available

87. Hakim RM: Influence of high-flux biocompatible membrane on carpal tunnel syndrome and mortality. Am J Kidney Dis 32:338-343, 1998 - No Abstract Available

88. Koda Y, Nishi S, Miyazaki S, Haginoshita S, Sakurabayashi T, Suzuki M, Sakai S, Yuasa Y, Hirasawa Y, Nishi T: Switch from conventional to high-flux membrane reduces the risk of carpal tunnel syndrome and mortality of hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 52:1096-1101, 1997

89. Locatelli F, Marcelli D, Conte M, Limido A, Malberti F, Spotti D, Registro Lombardo Dialisi E Trapianto: Effect of dialysis membranes and middle molecule removal on chronic hemodialysis patient survival. Kidney Int 55:286-293, 1999 - Full Text

90. Seres DS, Strain GW, Hashim SA, Goldberg IJ, Levin NW: Improvement of plasma lipoprotein profiles during high-flux dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:1409-1415, 1993

91. Leypoldt JK, Cheung AK, Carroll CE, Stannard DC, Pereira BJG, Agodoa LY, Port FK: Effect of dialysis membranes and middle molecule removal on chronic hemodialysis patient survival. Am J Kidney Dis 33:349-355, 1999

92. Eknoyan G, Levey AS, Beck GJ, Agodoa LY, Daugirdas JT, Kusek JW, Levin NW: The Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study: Rationale for selection of interventions. Semin Dial 9:24-33, 1996

93. Hakim R: Clinical implications of hemodialysis membrane: Effect of chronic complement activation. Kidney Int 44:484-494, 1993 - No Abstract Available

94. Lazarus JM, Owen WF: Role of bioincompatability in dialysis morbidity and mortality. Am J Kidney Dis 24:1019-1032, 1994

95. Hakim R, Fearon DT, Lazarus JM: Biocompatibility of dialysis membranes:effects of chronic complement activation. Kidney Int 26:194-200, 1984

96. Himmelfarb J, Gerard NP, Hakim RM: Intradialytic modulation of granulocyte C5a receptors. J Am Soc Nephrol 2:920-926, 1997

97. Hakim RM, Breillatt J, Lazarus JM, Port FK: Complement activation and hypersensitivity reactions to dialysis membranes. N Engl J Med 311:878-882, 1984

98. Craddock PR, Fehr J, Dalmasso AP, Bringham KL, Jacob HS: Hemodialysis leukopenia. Pulmonary vascular leukostasis resulting from complement activation by dialyzer cellophane membranes. J Clin Invest 59:879-888, 1977

99. Cheung AK: Adsorption of unactivated complement proteins by henodialysis membranes. Am J Kidney Dis 14:472-477, 1989

100. Himmelfarb J, Lazarus J, Hakim R: Reactive oxygen species production by monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes during dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 17:271-276, 1991

101. Vanholder R, Ringoir S: Infectious morbidity and defects of phagocytic function in end-stage renal disease; a review (editorial). J Am Soc Nephrol 3:1541-1554, 1993

102. Vanholder R, Dell’Aquila R, Jacobs V, et al: Depressed phagocytosis in hemodialyzed patients: In vivo and in vitro mechanisms. Nephron 63:409-453, 1993

103. Vanholder R, Van Loo A, Dhondt AM, Ringoir S: The role of dialysis membranes in infection. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:101-103, 1996 - No Abstract Available

104. Parker TF, Wingard RL, Husni L, Ikizler TA, Parker RA: Effect of membrane biocompatibility on nutritional parameters in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 49:551-556, 1996

105. Himmelfarb J, Hakim RM: Biocompatibility and risk of infection in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9:138-144, 1994

106. Levin NW, Zasuwa G: Relationship between dialyser type and signs and symptoms. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8:30-39, 1993 (suppl 2)

107. Hakim RM, Held PJ, Stannard DC, Wolfe RA, Port FK, Daugirdas JT, Agodoa L: Effect of dialysis membranes on mortality of chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 50:556-570, 1996

108. Hakim RM, Lazarus JM: Initiation of dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 6:1319-1328, 1995

109. National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Peritoneal Dialysis Adequacy, 2000. Am J Kidney Dis 37:S65-S136, 2001 (suppl 1)

110. Lindsay RM, Spanner E: A hypothesis: the protein catabolic rate is dependent upon the type and amount of treatment in dialyzed uremic patients. Am J Kidney Dis 13:382-389, 1989

111. Lindsay RM, Spanner E, Heidenheim P, et al: Which comes first, Kt/V or PCR–Chicken or egg? Kidney Int Suppl 41:S267-S273, 1993 - No Abstract Available

112. NKF-K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for nutrition in chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 35:S1-S140, 2000 (suppl 2)

113. Kimmel PL, Peterson RA, Weihs KL, Simmens SJ, Alleyne S, Cruz I, Veis JH: Psychosocial factors, behavioral compliance and survival in urban hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 54:245-254, 1998

114. DeOreo P: Hemodialysis patient assessed functional health status predicts continued survival, hospitalization, and dialysis-attendance compliance. Am J Kidney Dis 30:204-212, 1997

115. Delmez JA, Windus DW, St. Louis Nephrology Study Group: Hemodialysis prescription and delivery in a metropolitan community. Kidney Int 41:1023-1028, 1992

116. Lindsay RM, Heidenheim AP, Spanner E, Baird J, Simpson K, Allison ME: Urea monitoring during dialysis: the wave of the future. A tale of two cities. ASAIO Trans 37:49-53, 1991

117. Basile C, Casino F, Lopez T: Percent reduction in blood urea concentration during dialysis estimates Kt/V in a simple and accurate way. Am J Kidney Dis 15:40-45, 1990

118. Jindal KK, Manuel A, Goldstein MB: Percent reduction in blood urea concentration during hemodialysis (PRU): A simple and accurate method to estimate Kt/V urea. ASAIO Trans 33:286-288, 1987 - No Abstract Available

119. Bankhead MM, Toto RD, Star RA: Accuracy of urea removal estimated by kinetic models. Kidney Int 48:785-793, 1995

120. Burr T: Two-sample hemodialysis urea kinetic modeling: Validation of the method. Rev Enferm 69:49-53, 1995

121. Gabriel JP, Fellay G, Descombes E: Urea kinetic modeling: An in vitro and in vivo comparative study. Kidney Int 46:789-796, 1994

122. Depner TA, Greene T, Gotch FA, Daugirdas JT, Keshaviah PR, Star RA, Hemodialysis Study Group: Imprecision of the hemodialysis dose when measured directly from urea removal. Kidney Int 55:635-647, 1999 - Full Text

123. Cheng YL, Shek CC, Wong FKM, Choi KS, Chau KF, Ing T Li CS: Determination of the solute removal index for urea by using a partial spent dialysate collection method. Am J Kidney Dis 31:986-990, 1998

124. Depner T, Cheer A: Modeling urea kinetics with two versus three BUN measurements. A critical comparison. ASAIO Trans 35:499-502, 1989

125. Sargent JA, Gotch FA: Mathematic modeling of dialysis therapy. Kidney Int Suppl 10:S2-S10, 1976 - No Abstract Available

126. Sargent JA, Gotch FA: Principles and biophysics of dialysis, in Maher J (ed): Replacement of renal function by dialysis (ed 3). Boston, MA, Kluwer Academic, 1989, pp 87-143

127. Hume R, Weyers E: Relationship between total body water and surface area in normal and obese subjects. J Clin Pathol 24:234-238, 1971 - No Abstract Available

128. Watson PE, Watson ID, Batt RD: Total body water volumes for adult males and females estimated from simple anthropometric measurements. Am J Clin Nutr 33:27-39, 1980

129. Chertow GM, Lowrie EG, Lew NL, Lazarus JM: Development of a population-specific regression equation to estimate total body water in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 51:1578-1582, 1997

130. Saha LK, Van Stone JC: Differences between KT/V measured during dialysis and KT/V predicted from manufacturer clearance data. Int J Artif Organs 15:465-469, 1992

131. Garred LJ, Canaud B, Flavier JL, Poux C, Polito-Bouloux C, Mion C: Effect of reuse on dialyzer efficacy. Artif Organs 14:80-84, 1990

132. Evans JH, Smye SW, Brocklebank JT: Mathematical modelling of haemodialysis in children. Pediatr Nephrol 6:349-353, 1992

133. Smye SW, Evans JH, Will E, Brocklebank JT: Paediatric haemodialysis: Estimation of treatment efficiency in the presence of urea rebound. Clin Phys Physiol Meas 13:51-62, 1992

134. Harmon WE: Urea kinetic model to prescribe hemodialysis in children, in Nissenson AR, Fine RN (eds): Dialysis Therapy (ed 2). Philadelphia, PA, Hanley & Belfus, 1993, pp 353-357

135. Harmon WE: Kinetic modeling of haemodialysis in children. Semin Dial 7:392-397, 1994

136. Goldstein SL, Sorof JM, Brewer E: Natural logarithmic estimates of Kt/V in the pediatric hemodialysis population. Am J Kidney Dis 33:518-522, 1999

137. Warady BA, Alexander SR, Watkins S, Kohaut E, Harmon WE: Optimal care of the pediatric end stage renal disease patient on dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 33:567-583, 1999

138. Jabs K, Warady BA: The impact of the Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines on the care of the pediatric end-stage renal disease patient. Adv Renal Replace Ther 6:97-106, 1999

139. Depner T, Daugirdas JT: Equations for normalized protein catabolic rate based on two-point modeling of hemodialysis urea kinetics. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:780-785, 1996

140. Daugirdas JT: Linear estimates of variable-volume, single-pool Kt/V: An analysis of error. Am J Kidney Dis 22:267-270, 1993

141. Sherman RA, Cody RP, Rogers ME, Solanchick JC: Accuracy of the urea reduction ratio in predicting dialysis delivery. Kidney Int 47:319-321, 1995 - No Abstract Available

142. Depner TA: Estimation of Kt/V from the URR for varying levels of dialytic weight loss: A bedside graphic aid. Semin Dial 6:242, 1993

143. Garred LJ, Barichello DL, DiGiuseppe B, McCready WG, Canaud BC: Simple Kt/V formulas based on urea mass balance theory. ASAIO J 40:997-1004, 1994

144. Depner TA, Keshaviah PR, Ebben JP, Emerson PF, Collins AJ, Jindal KK, Nissenson AR, Lazarus JM, Pu K: Multicenter clinical validation of an on-line monitor of dialysis adequacy. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:464-471, 1996

145. Garred LJ, St.Amour NR, McCready WG, Canaud BC: Urea kinetic modeling with a prototype urea sensor in the spent dialysate stream. ASAIO J 39:M337-M341, 1993

146. Steil H, Kaufman AM, Morris AT, Levin NW, Polaschegg HD: In vivo verification of an automatic noninvasive system for real time Kt evaluation. ASAIO J 39:M348-M352, 1993

147. Charra B, Calemard E, Ruffet M, Chazot C, Terrat J, Vanel T, Laurent G: Survival as an index of adequacy of dialysis. Kidney Int 41:1286-1291, 1992

148. Kopple JD, Zhu X, Lew NL, Lowrie EG: Body weight-for-height relationships predict mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 56:1136-1148, 1999 - Full Text

149. Uehlinger DE, Keen M, Gotch F: Patient (P) survival with short-time high flux dialysis therapy (HFD). J Am Soc Nephrol 4:392A, 1993 (abstr)

150. McClellan W, Socie J, Flanders D: Mortality in end stage renal disease is associated with facility-to-facility differences in adequacy of hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 9:1940-1947, 1998

151. Capelli JP, Kushner H, Camiscioli T, Chen SM, Stuccio-White NM: Factors affecting survival of hemodialysis patients utilizing urea kinetic modeling; A critical appraisal of shortening dialysis times. Am J Nephrol 12:212-223, 1992

152. Lowrie EG, Lew NL, Huang WH: Race and diabetes as death risk predictors in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 38:S22-S31, 1992

153. Held P: Hemodialysis treatment time: Does it matter? ASAIO J (in press)

154. Wolfe RA,Ashby VB, Daugirdas JT, Agodoa LY, Jones CA, Port FK: Body size, dose of hemodialysis, and mortality. Am J Kidney Dis 35:80-88, 2000

155. Port FK, Hulbert-Shearon TE, Wolfe RA, Bloembergen W, Golper TA, Agodoa LYC, Young EW: Predialysis blood pressure and mortality risk in a national sample of maintenance hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 33:507-517, 1999

156. Li Z, Lew NL, Lazarus JM, Lowrie EG: Comparing the urea reduction ratio and the urea product as outcome-based measures of hemodialysis dose. Am J Kidney Dis 5:598-605, 2000

157. Zager PG, Nikolic J, Brown RH, Campbell MA, Hunt WC, Petersen D, Van Stone J, Levey A, Meyer KB, Klag M, Johnson HK, Clark E, Sadler JH, Teredesai P, Medical Directors of DCI: "U" curve association of blood pressure and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 54:561-569, 1998

158. Gotch F: Kt/V is the best dialysis dose parameter. Blood Purif 18:276-285, 2000 - No Abstract Available

159. Charra B, Laurent G, Calemard E, Terrat JC, Vanel T, Ruffet M, Chazot C: Survival in dialysis and blood pressure control. Contrib Nephrol 106:179-185, 1994 - No Abstract Available

160. Fishbane S, Natke E, Maesaka JK: Role of volume overload in dialysis-refractory hypertension. Am J Kidney Dis 28:257-261, 1996

161. Rahman M, Dixit A, Donley V, Gupta S, Hanslik T, Lacson E, Ogundipe A, Weigel K, Smith MC: Factors associated with inadequate blood pressure control in hypertensive hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 33:498-506, 1999

162. Sorof JM, Brewer ED, Portman RJ: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and interdialytic weight gain in children receiving chronic hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 33:667-674, 1999

163. Leblanc M, Charbonneau R, Lalumiere G, Cartier P, Deziel C: Postdialysis urea rebound: determinants and influence on dialysis delivery in chronic hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 27:253-261, 1996

164. Tattersall J, Farrington K, Bowser M, Aldridge C, Greenwood RN, Levin NW: Underdialysis caused by reliance on single pool urea kinetic modeling. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:398, 1996

165. Metry GS, Attman PO, Lonnroth P, Beshara SN, Aurell M: Urea kinetics during hemodialysis measured by microdialysis–A novel technique. Kidney Int 44:622-629, 1993

166. Heineken FG, Evans MC, Keen ML, Gotch FA: Intercompartmental fluid shifts in hemodialysis patients. Biotechnol Progr 3:69-73, 1987

167. Depner TA, Rizwan S, Cheer AY, Wagner JM, Eder LA: High venous urea concentrations in the opposite arm: a consequence of hemodialysis-induced compartment disequilibrium. ASAIO Trans 37:M141-M143, 1991

168. Star R, Hootkins J, Thompson J, et al: Variability and stability of two pool urea mass transfer coefficient. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:395A, 1992 (abstr)

169. Cappello A, Grandi F, Lamberti C, Santoro A: Comparative evaluation of different methods to estimate urea distribution volume and generation rate. Int J Artif Organs 17:322-330, 1994

170. Smye SW, Dunderdale E, Brownridge G, Will E: Estimation of treatment dose in high-efficiency haemodialysis. Rev Enferm 67:24-29, 1994

171. Abramson F, Gibson S, Barlee V, Bosch JP: Urea kinetic modeling at high urea clearances: Implications for clinical practice. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:5-14, 1994

172. Albouze G, Yanai M, Calamai M, Testou D, Jungers P, Man NK: Urea rebound and residual renal function in the calculation of Kt/V and protein catabolic rate. Kidney Int Suppl 43:S278-S281, 1993

173. Daugirdas JT, Depner TA: A nomogram approach to hemodialysis urea modeling.Am J Kidney Dis 23:33-40, 1994

174. Daugirdas JT: Estimation of equilibarated Kt/V using the unequilibrated post dialysis BUN. Semin Dial 8:283-284, 1995

175. Schneditz D, Van Stone JC, Daugirdas JT: A regional blood circulation alternative to in-series two compartment urea kinetic modeling. ASAIO J 39:M573-M577, 1993

176. Spiegel DM, Baker PL, Babcock S, Contiguglia R, Klein M: Hemodialysis urea rebound: The effect of increasing dialysis efficiency. Am J Kidney Dis 25:26-29, 1995

177. HEMO Study Group, Daugirdas JT, Depner TA, Gotch F, Greene T, Keshaviah P, Levin NW, Schulman G: Comparison of methods to predict equilibrated Kt/V in the HEMO Pilot Study. Kidney Int 52:1395-1405, 1997

178. Ronco C, Brendolan A, Crepaldi C, La Greca G: Ultrafiltrations-rate und dialyse-hypotension. Dialyse J 40:8-15, 1992

179. Stegeman CA, Huisman RM, de Rouw B, Joostema A, de Jong PE: Determination of protein catabolic rate in patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis: Urea output measurements compared with dietary protein intake and with calculation of urea generation rate. Am J Kidney Dis 25:887-895, 1995

180. Sherman RA, Kapoian T: Recirculation, urea disequilibrium, and dialysis efficiency: Peripheral arteriovenous versus central venovenous vascular access. Am J Kidney Dis 29:479-489, 1997

181. Daugirdas JT, Schneditz D: Overestimation of hemodialysis dose depends on dialysis efficiency by regional blood flow but not by conventional two pool urea kinetic analysis. ASAIO J 41:M719-M724, 1995

182. Bhaskaran S, Tobe S, Saiphoo C, Moldoveanu A, Raj DS, Manuel MA: Blood urea levels 30 minutes before the end of dialysis are equivalent to equilibrated blood urea. ASAIO J 6:M759-M762, 1998

183. Kloppenburg WD, Stegeman CA, Hooyschuur M, Van der Ven J, De Jong PE, Huisman RM: Assessing dialysis adequacy and dietary intake in the individual patient. Kidney Int 55:1961-1969, 1999 - Full Text

184. Hornberger JC: The hemodialysis prescription and quality-adjusted life expectancy. J Am Soc Nephrol 4:1004-1020, 1993

185. Levin NW, Stannard DC, Gotch F: Comparison of mortality risk (RR) by Kt/V single pool versus double pool (DP) analysis in diabetic and non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 6:626, 1995

186. Chertow GM, Owen WF, Lazarus JM, Lew SM, Lowrie EG: Exploring the reverse J-shaped curve between URR and mortality. Kidney Int 56:1872-1878, 1999 - Full Text

187. Sherman RA, Cody RP, Solanchick JC: Racial differences in the delivery of hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 21:632-634, 1993

188. Bloembergen WE, Port FK, Mauger EA, Wolfe RA: Causes of death in dialysis patients: Racial and gender differences. J Am Soc Nephrol 5:1231-1242, 1994

189. Lowrie EG, Chertow G, Lazarus JM Owen WF: The mortality effect of the clearance _ time product. Kidney Int 56:729-737, 1999 - Full Text

190. Charra B, Calemard E, Cuche M, Laurent G: Control of hypertension and prolonged survival on maintenance hemodialysis. Nephron 33:96-99, 1983

191. Goldwasser P, Mittman N, Antignani A, Burrell D, Michel MA, Collier J, Avram MM: Predictors of mortality in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:1613-1622, 1993

192. Jaeger JQ, Mehta RL: Assessment of dry weight in hemodialysis: An overview. J Am Soc Nephrol 10:392-403, 1999

193. LeFebvre JMJ, Spanner E, Heidenheim AP, Lindsay RM: Kt/V: Patients do not get what the physician prescribes. ASAIO Trans 37:M132-M133, 1991

194. Lai YH, Guh JY, Chen HC, Tsai JH: Effects of different sampling methods for measurement of post dialysis blood urea nitrogen on urea kinetic modeling derived parameters in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. ASAIO J 41:211-215, 1995

195. Sherman RA, Matera JJ, Novik L, Cody RP: Recirculation reassessed: The impact of blood flow rate and the low-flow method reevaluated. Am J Kidney Dis 23:846-848, 1994

196. Daugirdas JT, Burke MS, Balter P, Priester-Coary A, Majka T: Screening for extreme postdialysis urea rebound using the Smye method: patients with access recirculation identified when a slow flow method is not used to draw the postdialysis blood. Am J Kidney Dis 28:727-731, 1996

197. Schneditz D, Polaschegg HD, Levin NW, Cu GA, Morris AT, Kramer M, Daugirdas JT, Kaufman AM: Cardiopulmonary recirculation in dialysis: an underrecognized phenomenon. ASAIO J 38:M194-M196, 1992

198. Schneditz D, Kaufman AM, Polaschegg HD, Levin NW, Daugirdas JT: Cardiopulmonary recirculation during hemodialysis. Kidney Int 42:1450-1456, 1992 - No Abstract Available

199. Sherman RA: Recirculation revisited (editorial). Semin Dial 4:221-223, 1991

200. Collins AJ, Ma JZ, Constantini EG, Everson SE: Dialysis unit and patient characteristics associated with reuse practices and mortality: 1989-1993. J Am Soc Nephrol 9:2108-2117, 1998

201. Luehmann DA, Cosentino LC: Safety of dialyzer reuse with renalin: The untold story. Dial Transplant 5:248-258, 1994

202. Collins A: Morbidity and mortality associated with dialyzer reuse. AAMI, 1996 AAMI Short Course on Dialyzer Reprocessing, 1996

203. Collins A, Ma J: Reuse-associated mortality: 1989-90 vs.1991-93. J Am Soc Nephrol 1443, 1996 (abstr)

204. Murthy BVR, Sundaram S, Jaber BL, Perrella C, Meyer KB, Pereira BJG: Effect of formaldehyde/bleach reprocessing on invivo performances of high efficiency cellulose and high flux polysulfone dialyzers. J Am Soc Nephrol 9:464-472, 1998

205. Cheung AK, Agodoa LY, Daugirdas JT, Depner TA, Gotch FA, Greene T, Levin NW, Leypoldt JK, Hemodialysis Study Group: Effects of hemodialyzer reuse on clearances of urea and β2-microglobulin. J Am Soc Nephrol 10:117-127, 1999

206. Garred LJ, Canuad B, Flavier J-L, Poux C, Polito-Bouloux C, Mion C: Effect of reuse on dialyzer efficacy. Artif Organs 14:80-84, 1990

207. Health Care Financing Administration. Fed Reg 1995

208. Gotch FA: Solute and water transport and sterilant removal in reused dialyzers, in Deane N, Wineman RJ, Bemis JA (eds): Guide to Reprocessing of Hemodialyzers. Boston, MA, Martinus Nijhoff, 1986, pp 39-61

209. Delmez JA, Weerts CA, Hasamear PD, Windus DW: Severe dialyzer dysfunction undetectable by standard reprocessing validation tests. Kidney Int 36:478-484, 1989

210. Krivitski M, Kislukhin VV, MacGibbon DR, Kuznetsova OA, Reasons AM, Depner TA: In vivo measurement of hemodialyzer fiber bundle volume: Theory and validation. Kidney Int 1751-1758, 1998

211. Ifudu O, Chan E, Brezsnyak WF, Reydel C, McClendon E, Surgrue T, DiRienzo R, Avram MM, Friedman EA: Interdialytic weight gain and missed dialysis treatments in long-term hemodialysis patients. Dial Transplant 24:292-302, 1995

212. Kinet JP, Soyeur D, Balland N, Saint-Remy M, Collignon P, Godon JP: Hemodynamic study of hypotension during hemodialysis. Kidney Int 21:868-876, 1982 - No Abstract Available

213. De Vries JPPM, Kouw PM, van der Meer NJM, Olthof CG, Oe LP, Donker AJD, de Vries PMJM: Non-invasive monitoring of blood volume during hemodialysis: Its relation with post-dialytic dry weight. Kidney Int 44:851-854, 1993

214. De Vries JPPM, Bogaard HJ, Kouw PM, Oe LP, Stevens P, de Vries PMJM: The adjustment of post dialytic dry weight based on non-invasive measurement of extracellular fluid and blood volumes. ASAIO J 39:M368-M372, 1993

215. Jahn H, Schohn D, Schmitt R: Hemodynamic modifications induced by fluid removal and treatment modalities in chronic hemodialysis patients. Blood Purif 1:80-89, 1983 - No Abstract Available

216. Kirschbaum B: Comparison of indirect methods to estimate plasma volume changes during hemodialysis. Int J Artif Organs 12:307-313, 1989

217. Schallenberg U, Stiller S, Mann H: A new method of continuous haemoglobinometric measurement of blood volume during haemodialysis. Life Support Syst 5:293-305, 1987

218. Bauer H, Franz HE: Influence of variation of ultrafiltration rate on cardiovascular stability during dialysis. Contrib Nephrol 74:154-158, 1989 - No Abstract Available

219. Skroeder NR, Jacobson SH, Lins LE, Kjellstrand CM: Acute symptoms during and between hemodialysis: the relative role of speed, duration, and biocompatibility of dialysis. Artif Organs 18:880-887, 1994

220. Steuer RR, Harris DH, Conis JM: A new optical technique for monitoring hematocrit and circulating blood volume: its application in renal dialysis. Dial Transplant 22:260-265, 1993

221. Sato Y, Iida T, Yamashita M, Sugino K, Sakamaki T, Seto H, Fujibayashi Y, Koike A, Uchiyama T, Kajiwara N: Nature of refractory hypertension and its role in left ventricular function in patients on long-term hemodialysis. Nihon Univ J Med 30:147-156, 1988

222. Bogaard HJ, De Vries JPPM, de Vries PMJM: Assessment of refill and hypovolaemia by continuous surveillance of blood volume and extracellular fluid volume. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9:1283-1287, 1994 - Full Text

223. Rozich JD, Smith B, Thomas JD, Zile MR, Kaiser J, Mann DL: Dialysis-induced alterations in left ventricular filling: Mechanisms and clinical significance. Am J Kidney Dis 17:277-285, 1991

224. Sherman RA, Cody RP, Rogers ME, Solanchick JC: Interdialytic weight gain and nutritional parameters in chronic hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 25:579-583, 1995

225. Rouby JJ, Rottembourg J, Durande JP, Basset JY, Degoulet P, Glaser P, Legrain M: Hemodynamic changes induced by regular hemodialysis and sequential ultrafiltration hemodialysis: A comparative study. Kidney Int 17:801-810, 1980

226. Bradley JR, Evans DB, Cowley AJ: Comparison of vascular tone during combined haemodialysis with ultrafiltration and during ultrafiltration followed by haemodialysis: a possible mechanism for dialysis hypotension. BMJ 300:1312, 1990 - No Abstract Available

227. Po CL, Afolabi M, Raja RM: The role of sequential ultrafiltration and varying dialysate sodium on vascular stability during hemodialysis. ASAIO J 39:M798-M800, 1993

228. Odar-Cederlof I, Theodorsson E, Eriksson CG, Hamberger B, Tidgren B, Kjellstrand CM: Vasoactive agents and blood pressure regulation in sequential ultrafiltration and hemodialysis. Int J Artif Organs 16:662-669, 1993

229. Farinelli A, Squerzanti R, De Paoli Vitali E, Bagni B, Cavallini AR, Gilli P, Bedani PL: Response of plasma aldosterone to sequential ultrafiltration, dialysis and conventional hemodialysis. Rev Enferm 26:274-279, 1980

230. Perschel WT, Rockel A, Klinke B, Reinhardt B, Behnken LJ, Abdelhamid S, Fiegel P, Walb D: Variation of ultrafiltration and dialysate sodium: Beneficial effects on vascular stability in diabetic patients. Contrib Nephrol 74:176-181, 1989 - No Abstract Available

231. Jenson BM, Dobbe SA, Squillace DP, McCarthy JT: Clinical benefits of high and variable sodium concentration dialysate in hemodialysis patients. ANNA J 21:115-121, 1994

232. de Vries PMJM, Kouw PM, Olthof CG, Solf A, Schuenemann B, Oe LP, Quellhorst E, Donker AJM: The influence of dialysate sodium and variable ultrafiltration on fluid balance during hemodialysis. ASAIO Trans 36:821-824, 1990

233. Swartz RD, Somermeyer MG, Hsu CH: Preservation of plasma volume during hemodialysis depends on dialysate osmolality. Am J Nephrol 2:189-194, 1982

234. Raja RM, Po CI: Plasma refilling during hemodialysis with decreasing ultrafiltration: Influence of dialysate sodium. ASAIO J 40:M423-M425, 1994

235. Movilli E, Camerini C, Viola BF, Bossini N, Strada A, Maiorca R: Blood volume changes during three different profiles of dialysis sodium variation with similar intradialytic sodium balances in chronic hemodialyzed patients. Am J Kidney Dis 30:56-63, 1997

236. Sang GLS, Kovithavongs C, Ulan R, Kjellstrand K: Sodium ramping in hemodialysis: A study of beneficial and adverse effects. Am J Kidney Dis 29:669-677, 1997

237. Wolff J, Pedersen T, Rossen M, Cleemann-Rasmussen K: Effects of acetate and bicarbonate dialysis on cardiac performance, transmural myocardial perfusion and acid-base balance. Int J Artif Organs 9:105-110, 1986

238. Chen TS, Friedman HS, Smith AJ, Del Monte ML: Hemodynamic changes during hemodialysis: Role of dialyzate. Clin Nephrol 20:190-196, 1983

239. Pagel MD, Ahmad S, Vizzo JE, Scribner BH: Acetate and bicarbonate fluctuations and acetate intolerance during dialysis. Kidney Int 21:513-518, 1982

240. Hakim RM, Pontzer MA, Tilton D, Lazarus JM, Gottlieb MN: Effects of acetate and bicarbonate dialysate in stable chronic dialysis patients. Kidney Int 28:535-540, 1985

241. Sherman RA, Rubin MP, Cody RP, Eisinger RP: Amelioration of hemodialysis-associated hypotension by the use of cool dialysate. Am J Kidney Dis 5:124-127, 1985

242. Yu AW, Ing TS, Zabaneh RI, Daugirdas JT: Effect of dialysate temperature on central hemodynamics and urea kinetics. Kidney Int 48:237-243, 1995

243. Sherman RA, Faustino EF, Bernholc AS, Eisinger RP: Effect of variations in dialysate temperature on blood pressure during hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 4:66-68, 1984

244. Maggiore Q, Pizzarelli F, Sisca S, Zoccali C, Parlongo S, Nicolo F, Creazzo G: Blood temperature and vascular stability during hemodialysis and hemofiltration. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 28:523-527, 1982 - No Abstract Available

245. Marcen R, Quereda C, Orofino L, Lamas S, Teruel JL, Matesanz R, Ortuno J: Hemodialysis with low-temperature dialysate: A long term experience. Nephron 49:29-32, 1988

246. Kaufman A, Morris AT, Lavarias VA, Wang Y, Leung JF, Glabman MB, Yusuf SA, Levoci AL, Polaschegg HD, Levin NW: Effects of controlled blood cooling on hemodynamic stability and urea kinetics during high efficiency hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 44:606-612, 1997

247. Jost CM, Agarwal R, Khaur-El-Din T, Grayburn PA, Victor RG, Heinrich WL: Effects of cooler dialysate on hemodynamic stability in "problem" dialysis patients. Kidney Int 44:606-612, 1993

248. Orofino L, Marcen R, Quereda C, Villafruela JJ, Sabater J, Matesanz R, Pascual J, Ortuno J: Epidemiology of symptomatic hypotension in hemodialysis: Is cool dialysate beneficial for all patients. Am J Nephrol 10:177-180, 1990

249. Fine A, Penner B: The protective effect of cool dialysate is dependent on patients’ predialysis temperature. Am J Kidney Dis 28:262-265, 1996

250. Cruz DN, Mahnensmith RL, Brickel HM, Perazella MA: Midodrine and cool dialysate are effective therapies for symptomatic intradialytic hypotension. Am J Kidney Dis 33:920-926, 1999

251. Fynn JJ, Mitchell MC, Caruso FS, McElligott MA: Midodrine treatment for patients with hemodialysis hypotension. Clin Nephrol 45:261-267, 1996

252. Cruz DN, Mahnensmith RL, Perazella MA: Intradialytic hypotension: Is midodrine beneficial in symptomatic hemodialysis patients? Am J Kidney Dis 30:772-779, 1997

253. Cruz DN, Mahnensmith RL, Brickel HM, Perazella MA: Midodrine is effective and safe therapy for intradialytic hypotension over 8 months of follow-up. Clin Nephrol 50:101-107, 1998

254. Janvokic J, Gilden JL, Hiner BC, Kaufman H, Brown DC, Coghlan CH, Rubin M, Fouad-Tarazi FM: Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with midodrine. Am J Med 95:38-48, 1993

255. Zoccali C, Mallamaci F, Ciccarelli M, Maggiore Q: Postprandial alterations in arterial pressure control during hemodialysis in uremic patients. Clin Nephrol 31:323-326, 1989

256. Barakat MM, Nawab ZM, Yu AW, Lau AH, Ing TS, Daugirdas JT: Hemodynamic effects of intradialytic food ingestion and the effects of caffeine. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:1813-1818, 1993

257. Sherman RA, Torres F, Cody RP: Postprandial blood pressure changes during hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 12:37-39, 1988

258. Sulkova S, Valek A: Role of antihypertensive drugs in the therapy of patients on regular dialysis treatment. Kidney Int Suppl 34:S198-S200, 1988 - No Abstract Available

259. Salem MM: Hypertension in the hemodialysis population: A survey of 649 patients. Am J Kidney Dis 26:461-468, 1995

 

 

© 2001 National Kidney Foundation, Inc

web version created by cyberNephrologyTM and The Nephron Information Center