KDOQI (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative)

Executive Summaries | Anemia | Hemodialysis | Peritoneal Dialysis |
Vascular Access | Nutrition | CKD 2002 | Dyslipidemias | Bone Metabolism | Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents | Cardiovascular Disease in Dialysis Patients | History of KDOQI | Pediatric Bone | Anemia 2006 |
Updates 2006

Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations
2006 Updates
Hemodialysis Adequacy
Peritoneal Dialysis Adequacy
Vascular Access



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52. Huber TS, Seeger JM: Approach to patients with “complex” hemodialysis access problems. Semin Dial 16:22-29, 2003

53. Debing E, Van den Brande P: Axillo-axillary arteriovenous fistula as a suitable surgical alternative for chronic haemodialysis access. Nephrol Dial Transplant 14:1252-1253, 1999

54. Han KM, Duijm LE, Thelissen GR, et al: Failing hemodialysis access grafts: Evaluation of complete vascular tree with 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography with high spatial resolution: Initial results in 10 patients. Radiology 227:601-605, 2003

55. Miller CD, Robbin ML, Barker J, Allon M: Comparison of arteriovenous grafts in the thigh and upper extremities in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 14:2942-2947, 2003

56. Coronel F, Herrero JA, Mateos P, Illescas ML, Torrente J, del Valle MJ: Long-term experience with the Thomas shunt, the forgotten permanent vascular access for haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 16:1845-1849, 2001

57. Perera GB, Mueller MP, Kubaska SM, Wilson SE, Lawrence PF, Fujitani RM: Superiority of autogenous arteriovenous hemodialysis access: Maintenance of function with fewer secondary interventions. Ann Vasc Surg 18:66-73, 2004

58. Huber TS, Carter JW, Carter RL, Seeger JM: Patency of autogenous and polytetrafluoroethylene upper extremity arteriovenous hemodialysis accesses: A systematic review. J Vasc Surg 38:1005-1011, 2003

59. Nassar GM, Ayus JC: Infectious complications of the hemodialysis access. Kidney Int 60:1-13, 2001

60. Gulati S, Sahu KM, Avula S, Sharma RK, Ayyagiri A, Pandey CM: Role of vascular access as a risk factor for infections in hemodialysis. Ren Fail 25:967-973, 2003

61. Brescia MJ, Cimino JE, Appel K, Hurwich BJ: Chronic hemodialysis using venipuncture and a surgically created arteriovenous fistula. N Engl J Med 275:1089-1092, 1966

62. Cantelmo NL, LoGerfo FW, Menzoian JO: Brachiobasilic and brachiocephalic fistulas as secondary angioaccess routes. Surg Gynecol Obstet 155:545-548, 1982

63. Dunlop MG, Mackinlay JY, Jenkins AM: Vascular access: Experience with the brachiocephalic fistula. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 68:203-206, 1986

64. Fan PY, Schwab SJ: Vascular access: Concepts for the 1990s. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:1-11, 1992

65. Kherlakian GM, Roedersheimer LR, Arbaugh JJ, Newmark KJ, King LR: Comparison of autogenous fistula versus expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft fistula for angioaccess in hemodialysis. Am J Surg 152:238-243, 1986

66. Kinnaert P, Vereerstraeten P, Toussaint C, Van Geertruyden J: Nine years' experience with internal arteriovenous fistulas for haemodialysis: A study of some factors influencing the results. Br J Surg 64:242-246, 1977

67. Munda R, First MR, Alexander JW, Linnemann CC Jr, Fidler JP, Kittur D: Polytetrafluoroethylene graft survival in hemodialysis. JAMA 249:219-222, 1983

68. Ryan JJ, Dennis MJ: Radiocephalic fistula in vascular access. Br J Surg 77:1321-1322, 1990

69. Windus DW: Permanent vascular access: A nephrologist's view. Am J Kidney Dis 21:457-471, 1993

70. Begin V, Ethier J, Dumont M, Leblanc M: Prospective evaluation of the intra-access flow of recently created native arteriovenous fistulae. Am J Kidney Dis 40:1277-1282, 2002

71. Johnson CP, Zhu YR, Matt C, Pelz C, Roza AM, Adams MB: Prognostic value of intraoperative blood flow measurements in vascular access surgery. Surgery 124:729-737; discussion 737-738, 1998

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73. Albers FJ: Causes of hemodialysis access failure. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:107-118, 1994

74. Weyde W, Krajewska M, Letachowicz W, Klinger M: Superficialization of the wrist native arteriovenous fistula for effective hemodialysis vascular access construction. Kidney Int 61:1170-1173, 2002

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76. Rooijens PP, Tordoir JH, Stijnen T, Burgmans JP, Smet de AA, Yo TI: Radiocephalic wrist arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis: Meta-analysis indicates a high primary failure rate. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 28:583-589, 2004

77. Nazzal MM, Neglen P, Naseem J, Christenson JT, al-Hassan HK: The brachiocephalic fistula: A successful secondary vascular access procedure. Vasa 19:326-329, 1990

78. Nghiem DD: Angioaccess by reverse brachiocephalic fistula. Am J Surg 153:574-575, 1987

79. Stonebridge PA, Edington D, Jenkins AM: 'Brachial/basilic vein' transposition for vascular access. J R Coll Surg Edinb 40:219-220, 1995

80. Goff CD, Sato DT, Bloch PH, et al: Steal syndrome complicating hemodialysis access procedures: Can it be predicted? Ann Vasc Surg 14:138-144, 2000

81. Hossny A: Brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistula: Different surgical techniques and their effects on fistula patency and dialysis-related complications. J Vasc Surg 37:821-826, 2003

82. Segal JH, Kayler LK, Henke P, Merion RM, Leavey S, Campbell DA Jr: Vascular access outcomes using the transposed basilic vein arteriovenous fistula. Am J Kidney Dis 42:151-157, 2003

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87. Nguyen VD, Griffith C, Treat L: A multidisciplinary team approach to increasing AV fistula creation. Nephrol News Issues 17:54-56, 58, 60, 2003

88. Salgado OJ: Basic steps for increasing the rate of autogenic vascular accesses for hemodialysis. Ther Apher Dial 7:238-243, 2003

89. Didlake R, Curry E, Bower J: Composite dialysis access grafts. J Am Coll Surg 178:24-28, 1994

90. Humphries AL Jr, Nesbit RR Jr, Caruana RJ, Hutchins RS, Heimburger RA, Wray CH: Thirty-six recommendations for vascular access operations: Lessons learned from our first thousand operations. Am Surg 47:145-151, 1981

91. Owens ML, Stabile BE, Gahr JA, Wilson SE: Vascular grafts for hemodialysis: Evaluation of sites and materials. Dial Transplant 8:521-530, 1979

92. Anderson CB, Sicard GA, Etheredge EE: Bovine carotid artery and expanded polytetrafluroethylene grafts for hemodialysis vascular access. J Surg Res 29:184-188, 1980

93. Butler HG III, Baker LD Jr, Johnson JM: Vascular access for chronic hemodialysis: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) versus bovine heterograft. Am J Surg 134:791-793, 1977

94. Tordoir JH, Debeylaan P: The morbidity of secondary vascular access. A lifetime of intervention. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 19:559, 2000 (letter)

95. Johansen K, Lyman D, Sauvage L: Biomaterials for hemodialysis access. Blood Purif 12:73-77, 1994

96. Bone GE, Pomajzl MJ: Prospective comparison of polytetrafluoroethylene and bovine grafts for dialysis. J Surg Res 29:223-227, 1980

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101. May J, Harris J, Patrick W: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts for haemodialysis: Patency and complications compared with those of saphenous vein grafts. Aust N Z J Surg 49:639-642, 1979

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103. Tellis VA, Kohlberg WI, Bhat DJ, Driscoll B, Veith FJ: Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft fistula for chronic hemodialysis. Ann Surg 189:101-105, 1979

104. Rubio PA, Farrell EM: Human umbilical vein graft angioaccess in chronic hemodialysis: A preliminary report. Dial Transplant 8:211-212, 1979

105. Etheredge EE, Haid SD, Maeser MN, Sicard GA, Anderson CB: Salvage operations for malfunctioning polytetrafluoroethylene hemodialysis access grafts. Surgery 94:464-470, 1983

106. Rizzuti RP, Hale JC, Burkart TE: Extended patency of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for vascular access using optimal configuration and revisions. Surg Gynecol Obstet 166:23-27, 1988

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108. Kanterman RY, Vesely TM, Pilgram TK, Guy BW, Windus DW, Picus D: Dialysis access grafts: Anatomic location of venous stenosis and results of angioplasty. Radiology 195:135-139, 1995

109. Beathard GA: Mechanical versus pharmacomechanical thrombolysis for the treatment of thrombosed dialysis access grafts. Kidney Int 45:1401-1406, 1994

110. Beathard GA: Thrombolysis versus surgery for the treatment of thrombosed dialysis access grafts. J Am Soc Nephrol 6:1619-1624, 1995

111. Beathard GA: Percutaneous transvenous angioplasty in the treatment of vascular access stenosis. Kidney Int 42:1390-1397, 1992

112. Turmel-Rodrigues L, Pengloan J, Baudin S, et al: Treatment of stenosis and thrombosis in haemodialysis fistulas and grafts by interventional radiology. Nephrol Dial Transplant 15:2029-2036, 2000

113. Coyne DW, Lowell JA, Windus DW, et al: Comparison of survival of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft designed for early cannulation to standard wall polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. J Am Coll Surg 183:401-405, 1996

114. Matsuda H, Miyazaki M, Oka Y, et al: A polyurethane vascular access graft and a hybrid polytetrafluoroethylene graft as an arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis: Comparison with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Artif Organs 27:722-727, 2003

115. Peng CW, Tan SG: Polyurethane grafts: A viable alternative for dialysis arteriovenous access? Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 11:314-318, 2003

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120. Rayner HC, Pisoni RL, Gillespie BW, et al: Creation, cannulation and survival of arteriovenous fistulae: Data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study. Kidney Int 63:323-330, 2003

121. Beathard GA, Settle SM, Shields MW: Salvage of the nonfunctioning arteriovenous fistula. Am J Kidney Dis 33:910-916, 1999

122. Faiyaz R, Abreo K, Zaman F, Pervez A, Zibari G, Work J: Salvage of poorly developed arteriovenous fistulae with percutaneous ligation of accessory veins. Am J Kidney Dis 39:824-827, 2002

123. Patel ST, Hughes J, Mills JL Sr: Failure of arteriovenous fistula maturation: An unintended consequence of exceeding Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative Guidelines for Hemodialysis Access. J Vasc Surg 38:439-445; discussion 445, 2003

124. Malik J, Slavikova M, Malikova H, Maskova J: Many clinically silent access stenoses can be identified by ultrasonography. J Nephrol 15:661-665, 2002

125. Berman SS, Gentile AT: Impact of secondary procedures in autogenous arteriovenous fistula maturation and maintenance. J Vasc Surg 34:866-871, 2001

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127. Leaf DA, MacRae HS, Grant E, Kraut J: Isometric exercise increases the size of forearm veins in patients with chronic renal failure. Am J Med Sci 325:115-119, 2003

128. Glickman MH, Stokes GK, Ross JR, et al: Multicenter evaluation of a polytetrafluoroethylene vascular access graft as compared with the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular access graft in hemodialysis applications. J Vasc Surg 34:465-472; discussion 472-463, 2001

129. Hurlbert SN, Mattos MA, Henretta JP, et al: Long-term patency rates, complications and cost-effectiveness of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts for hemodialysis access: A prospective study that compares Impra versus Gore-Tex grafts. Cardiovasc Surg 6:652-656, 1998

130. Kaufman JL, Garb JL, Berman JA, Rhee SW, Norris MA, Friedmann P: A prospective comparison of two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for linear forearm hemodialysis access: Does the manufacturer matter? J Am Coll Surg 185:74-79, 1997

131. Lenz BJ, Veldenz HC, Dennis JW, Khansarinia S, Atteberry LR: A three-year follow-up on standard versus thin wall ePTFE grafts for hemodialysis. J Vasc Surg 28:464-470; discussion 470, 1998

132. Kao CL, Chang JP: Fully ringed polytetrafluoroethylene graft for vascular access in hemodialysis. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 11:171-173, 2003

133. Almonacid PJ, Pallares EC, Rodriguez AQ, Valdes JS, Rueda Orgaz JA, Polo JR: Comparative study of use of Diastat versus standard wall PTFE grafts in upper arm hemodialysis access. Ann Vasc Surg 14:659-662, 2000

134. Freischlag JA: Regarding “the effect of venous anastomosis Tyrell vein patch collar on the primary patency of arteriovenous grafts in patients undergoing hemodialysis” and “effects of a venous cuff at the venous anastomosis of polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis vascular access.” J Vasc Surg 32:1235-1236, 2000

135. Lemson MS, Tordoir JH, van Det RJ, et al: Effects of a venous cuff at the venous anastomosis of polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis vascular access. J Vasc Surg 32:1155-1163, 2000

136. Sorom AJ, Hughes CB, McCarthy JT, et al: Prospective, randomized evaluation of a cuffed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft for hemodialysis vascular access. Surgery 132:135-140, 2002

137. Garcia-Pajares R, Polo JR, Flores A, Gonzalez-Tabares E, Solis JV: Upper arm polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for dialysis access. Analysis of two different graft sizes: 6 mm and 6-8 mm. Vasc Endovasc Surg 37:335-343, 2003

138. Polo JR, Ligero JM, Diaz-Cartelle J, Garcia-Pajares R, Cervera T, Reparaz L: Randomized comparison of 6-mm straight grafts versus 6- to 8-mm tapered grafts for brachial-axillary dialysis access. J Vasc Surg 40:319-324, 2004

139. Dammers R, Planken RN, Pouls KP, et al: Evaluation of 4-mm to 7-mm versus 6-mm prosthetic brachial-antecubital forearm loop access for hemodialysis: Results of a randomized multicenter clinical trial. J Vasc Surg 37:143-148, 2003

140. Glickman MH, Lawson JH, Katzman HE, Schild AF, Fujitani RM: Challenges of hemodialysis access for high risk patients: Impact of mesenteric vein bioprosthetic graft. J Vasc Access 4:73-80, 2003

141. Scher LA, Katzman HE: Alternative graft materials for hemodialysis access. Semin Vasc Surg 17:19-24, 2004

142. Senkaya I, Aytac II, Eercan AK, Aliosman A, Percin B: The graft selection for haemodialysis. Vasa 32:209-213, 2003

143. Rosas SE, Joffe M, Burns JE, Knauss J, Brayman K, Feldman HI: Determinants of successful synthetic hemodialysis vascular access graft placement. J Vasc Surg 37:1036-1042, 2003

144. Cook JW, Schuman ES, Standage BA, Heinl P: Patency and flow characteristics using stapled vascular anastomoses in dialysis grafts. Am J Surg 181:24-27, 2001

145. Lin PH, Bush RL, Nelson JC, et al: A prospective evaluation of interrupted nitinol surgical clips in arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis. Am J Surg 186:625-630, 2003

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147. Fan PY: Acute vascular access: New advances. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:90-98, 1994

148. Schwab SJ, Buller GL, McCann RL, Bollinger RR, Stickel DL: Prospective evaluation of a Dacron cuffed hemodialysis catheter for prolonged use. Am J Kidney Dis 11:166-169, 1988

149. Shusterman NH, Kloss K, Mullen JL: Successful use of double-lumen, silicone rubber catheters for permanent hemodialysis access. Kidney Int 35:887-890, 1989

150. Moss AH, McLaughlin MM, Lempert KD, Holley JL: Use of a silicone catheter with a Dacron cuff for dialysis short-term vascular access. Am J Kidney Dis 12:492-498, 1988

151. Moss AH, Vasilakis C, Holley JL, Foulks CJ, Pillai K, McDowell DE: Use of a silicone dual-lumen catheter with a Dacron cuff as a long-term vascular access for hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 16:211-215, 1990

152. Canaud B, Beraud JJ, Joyeux H, Mion C: Internal jugular vein cannulation with two silicone rubber catheters: A new and safe temporary vascular access for hemodialysis. Thirty months' experience. Artif Organs 10:397-403, 1986

153. Canaud B, Beraud JJ, Joyeux H, Mion C: Internal jugular vein cannulation using 2 Silastic catheters. A new, simple and safe long-term vascular access for extracorporeal treatment. Nephron 43:133-138, 1986

154. Uldall R, DeBruyne M, Besley M, McMillan J, Simons M, Francoeur R: A new vascular access catheter for hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 21:270-277, 1993

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