NKF K/DOQI GUIDELINES 2000
 
 

GUIDELINES FOR VASCULAR ACCESS

VII. References

1. Deleted in proof.

2. Deleted in proof.

3. Churchill DN, Taylor DW, Cook RJ, Laplante P, Barre P, Cartier P, Fay WP, Goldstein MB, Jindal K, Mandin H, McKenzie JK, Muirhead N, Parfrey PS, Posen GA: Canadian hemodialysis morbidity study. Am J Kidney Dis 19:214-234, 1992

4. Mehta S: Statistical summary of clinical results of vascular access procedures for haemodialysis, in Sommer BG, Henry ML (eds): Vascular Access for Hemodialysis–II. W.L. Gore & Associates, 1991, pp 145-157

5. Kaufman JL: The decline of the autogenous hemodialysis access site. Semin Dial 8:59-61, 1995

6. US Renal Data System: X. The cost effectiveness of alternative types of vascular access and the economic cost of ESRD. Am J Kidney Dis 26:S140-S156, 1995 (suppl)

7. Feldman HI, Kobrin S, Wasserman A: Hemodialysis vascular access morbidity. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:523-535, 1996

8. Hood SA, Schillo B, Beane GE, Rozas V, Sondheimer JH: An analysis of the adequacy of preparation for end-stage renal disease care in Michigan. ASAIO J 41:M422-M426, 1995

9. Besarab A, Sullivan KL, Ross RP, Moritz MJ: Utility of intra-access pressure monitoring in detecting and correcting venous outlet stenoses prior to thrombosis. Kidney Int 47:1364-1373, 1995

10. Feldman HI, Held PJ, Hutchinson JT, Stoiber E, Hartigan MF, Berlin JA: Hemodialysis vascular access morbidity in the United States. Kidney Int 43:1091-1096, 1993

11. Carlson DM, Duncan DA, Naessens JM, Johnson WJ: Hospitalization in dialysis patients. Mayo Clin Proc 59:769-775, 1984

12. Mayers JD, Markell MS, Cohen LS, Hong J, Lundin P, Friedman EA: Vascular access surgery for maintenance hemodialysis: Variables in hospital stay. ASAIO J 38:113-115, 1992

13. Palder SB, Kirkman RL, Whittemore AD, Hakim RM, Lazarus JM, Tilney NL: Vascular access for hemodialysis: Patency rates and results of revision. Ann Surg 202:235-239, 1985

14. Raju S: PTFE grafts for hemodialysis access: Techniques for insertion and management of complications. Ann Surg 206:666-673, 1987

15. Glanz S, Bashist B, Gordon DH, Butt K, Adamsons R: Axillary and subclavian vein stenosis: Percutaneous angioplasty. Radiology 168:371-373, 1988

16. Tordoir J, Herman JMMPH, Kwan TS, Diderich PM: Long-term follow-up of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) prosthesis as an arteriovenous fistula for haemodialysis. Eur J Vasc Surg 2:3-7, 1987

17. Trerotola SO: Interventional radiology in central venous stenosis and occlusion. Semin Intervent Radiol 11:291-304, 1994

18. Harland RC: Placement of permanent vascular access devices: Surgical considerations. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:99-106, 1994

19. Marx AB, Landerman J, Harder FH: Vascular access for hemodialysis. Curr Probl Surg 27:15-48, 1990

20. Schwab SJ, Quarles LD, Middleton JP, Cohan RH, Saeed M, Dennis VW: Hemodialysis-associated subclavian vein stenosis. Kidney Int 33:1156-1159, 1988

21. Newman GE, Saeed M, Himmelstein S, Cohan RH, Schwab SJ: Total central vein obstruction: Resolution with angioplasty and fibrinolysis. Kidney Int 39:761-764, 1991 - No Abstract Available

22. Bander SJ, Schwab SJ: Central venous angioaccess for hemodialysis and its complications. Semin Dial 5:121-128, 1992

23. Bolz K, Fjermeros G, Wideroe T, Hatlinghus S: Catheter malfunction and thrombus formation on double-lumen hemodialysis catheters: An intravascular ultrasonographic study. Am J Kidney Dis 25:597-602, 1995

24. Spinowitz BS, Carsen G, Meisell R, Charytan C: Percutaneous transluminal dilatation for vascular access. Nephron 35:201-204, 1983

25. Surratt RS, Picus D, Hicks ME, Darcy MD, Kleinhoffer M, Jendrisak M: The importance of preoperative evaluation of the subclavian vein in dialysis access planning. Am J Roentgenol 156:623-625, 1991

26. Barrett N, Spencer S, McIvor J, Brown EA: Subclavian stenosis: A major complication of subclavian dialysis catheters. Nephrol Dial Transplant 3:423-425, 1988

27. Stone WJ, Wall MN, Powers TA: Massive upper extremity edema with arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis. A complication of previous pacemaker insertion. Nephron 31:184-186, 1982

28. Korzets A, Chagnac A, Ori Y, Katz M, Zevin D: Subclavian vein stenosis, permanent cardiac pacemakers and the haemodialysed patient. Nephron 58:103-105, 1991

29. Sands J, Young S, Miranda C: The effect of Doppler flow screening studies and elective revisions on dialysis access failure. ASAIO J 38:M524-M527, 1992

30. Tordoir JHM, Hoeneveld H, Eikelboom BC, Kitslaar PJEHM: The correlation between clinical and duplex ultrasound parameters and the development of complications in arterio-venous fistulae for hemodialysis. Eur J Vasc Surg 4:179-184, 1990

31. Tordoir JHM, De Bruin HG, Hoeneveld H, Eikelboom BC, Kitslaar PJEHM: Duplex ultrasound scanning in the assessment of arteriovenous fistulas created for hemodialysis access: Comparison with digital subtraction angiography. J Vasc Surg 10:122-128, 1989

32. Nonnast-Daniel B, Martin RP, Lindert O, Mugge A, Schaeffer J, v.d. Lieth H, Sochtig E, Galanski M, Koch KM, Daniel WG: Colour doppler ultrasound assessment of arteriovenous haemodialysis fistulas. Lancet 339:143-145, 1992

33. Middleton WD, Picus DD, Marx MV, Melson GL: Color doppler sonography of hemodialysis vascular access: Comparison with angiography. Am J Roentgenol 152:633-639, 1989

34. Scheible W, Skram C, Leopold GR: High resolution real-time sonongraphy of hemodialysis vascular access complications. Am J Roentgenol 134:1173-1176, 1980

35. Sands J: Optimizing hemodialysis access: A teaching tool. Nephrol News Issues 16-22, 1996

36. Fan P-Y, Schwab SJ: Vascular access–Concepts for the 1990s. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:1-11, 1992

37. Windus DW: Permanent vascular access: A nephrologist’s view. Am J Kidney Dis 21:457-471, 1993

38. Munda R, First R, Alexander JW, Linnemann CC, Fidler JP, Kittur D: Polytetrafluoroethylene graft survival in hemodialysis. JAMA 249:219-222, 1983

39. Kinnaert P, Vereerstraeten P, Toussaint C, Van Geertruyden J: Nine years’ experience with internal arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis: Study of some factors influencing results. Br J Surg 64:242-246, 1977

40. Kherlakian GM, Roedersheimer LR, Arbaugh JJ, Newmark KJ, King LR: Comparison of autogenous fistula versus expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft fistula for angioaccess in hemodialysis. Am J Surg 152:238-243, 1986

41. Dunlop MG, Mackinlay JY, Jenkins AM: Vascular access: Experience with the brachiocephalic fistula. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 68:203-206, 1986

42. Ryan JJ, Dennis MJS: Radiocephalic fistula in vascular access. Br J Surg 77:1321-1322, 1990 - No Abstract Available

43. Albers F: Causes of hemodialysis access failure. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:107-118, 1994

44. Nghiem DD: Angioaccess by reverse brachiocephalic fistula. Am J Surg 153:574-575, 1987

45. Stonebridge PA, Edington D, Jenkins AM: ’Brachial/basilic vein’ transposition for vascular access. J R Coll Surg Edinb 40:219-220, 1995

46. Cantelmo NL, Logerfo FW, Menzoian JO: Brachiobasilic and brachiocephalic fistulas as secondary angioaccess routes. Surg Gynecol Obstet 155:545-548, 1982 - No Abstract Available

47. Nazzal MMS, Neglen P, Naseem J, Christenson JT, Al-Hassan HK: The brachiocephalic fistula: A successful secondary vascular access procedure. Vasa 19:326-329, 1990

48. Didlake R, Curry E, Bower J: Composite dialysis access grafts. J Am Coll Surg 178:24-28, 1994

49. Humphries AL Jr, Nesbit RR Jr, Caruna RJ, Hutchins RS, Heimburger RA, Wray CH: Thirty-six recommendations for vascular access operations: Lessons learned from our first thousand operations. Am Surg 47:145-151, 1981 - No Abstract Availalbe

50. Owens ML, Stabile BE, Gahr JA, Wilson SE: Vascular grafts for hemodialysis: Evaluation of sites and materials. Dial Transplant 8:521,530, 1979

51. Anderson CB, Sicard GA, Etheredge EE: Bovine carotid artery and expanded polytetrafluroethylene grafts for hemodialysis vascular access. J Surg Res 29:184-188, 1980 - No Abstract Available

52. Butler HG III, Baker LD Jr, Johnson JM: Vascular access for chronic hemodialysis: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) versus bovine heterograft. Am J Surg 134:791-793, 1977

53. Rizzuti RP, Hale JC, Burkart TE: Extended patency of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for vascular access using optimal configuration and revisions. Surg Gynecol Obstet 166:23-27, 1988

54. Johansen K, Lyman D, Sauvage L: Biomaterials for hemodialysis access. Blood Purif 12:73-77, 1994

55. Dienst SG, Oh HK, Levin NW, Kallioinen S: A comparison of dialysis access grafts. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 29:353-356, 1983 - No Abstract Available

56. Gross GF, Hayes JF: PFTE graft arteriovenous fistulae for hemodialysis access. Am Surg 45:748-749, 1979

57. Jenkins AM, Buist TAS, Glover SD: Medium-term follow-up of forty autogenous vein and forty polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) grafts for vascular access. Surgery 88:667-672, 1980

58. Lilly L, Nighiem D, Mendez-Picon G, Lee HM: Comparison between bovine heterograft and expanded PTFE grafts for dialysis access. Am Surg 694-696, 1980

59. Bone GE, Pomajzl MJ: Prospective comparison of polytetrafluoroethylene and bovine grafts for dialysis. J Surg Res 29:223-227, 1980 - No Abstract Available

60. Sabanayagam P, Schwartz AB, Soricelli RR, Lyons P, Chinitz J: A comparative study of 402 bovine heterografts and 225 reinforced expanded PTFE grafts as AVF in the ESRD patient. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 26:88-92, 1980 - No Abstract Available

61. Kaplan MS, Mirahmadi KS, Winer RL, Gorman JT, Dabirvaziri N, Rosen SM: Comparison of "PTFE" and bovine grafts for blood access in dialysis patients. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 22:388-393, 1976 - No Abstract Available

62. May J, Harris J, Patrick W: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts for haemodialysis: Patency and complications compared with those of saphenous vein grafts. Aust N Z J Surg 49:639-642, 1979

63. Tellis VA, Kohlberg WI, Bhat DJ, Driscoll B, Veith FJ: Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft fistula for chronic hemodialysis. Ann Surg 189:101-105, 1979

64. Elliott MP, Gazzaniga AB, Thomas JM, Haiduc NJ, Rosen SM: Use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for vascular access in hemodialysis: Laboratory and clinical evaluation. Am Surg 43:455-459, 1977

65. Rubio PA, Farrell EM: Human umbilical vein graft angioaccess in chronic hemodialysis: A preliminary report. Dial Transplant 8:211-212, 1979

66. Etheredge EE, Haid SD, Maeser MN, Sicard GA, Anderson CB: Salvage operations for malfunctioning polytetrafluoroethylene hemodialysis access grafts. Surgery 94:464-470, 1983

67. Rubio PA, Farrell EM: Modified human umbilical vein arteriovenous fistula for maintenance hemodialysis: A 3-1/2 year experience. Arch Surg 117:943-945, 1982 - No Abstract Available

68. Beathard GA: Gianturco self-expanding stent in the treatment of stenosis in dialysis access grafts. Kidney Int 43:872-877, 1993

69. Fan PY: Acute vascular access: New advances. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:90-98, 1994

70. Schwab SJ, Buller GL, McCann RL, Bollinger RR, Stickel DL: Prospective evaluation of a dacron cuffed hemodialysis catheter for prolonged use. Am J Kidney Dis 11:166-169, 1988

71. Shusterman NH, Kloss K, Mullen JL: Successful use of double-lumen, silicone rubber catheters for permanent hemodialysis access. Kidney Int 35:887-890, 1989 - No Abstract Available

72. Moss AH, Mclaughlin MM, Lempert KD, Holley JL: Use of a silicone catheter with a Dacron cuff for dialysis short-term vascular access. Am J Kidney Dis 12:492-498, 1988

73. Moss AH, Vasilakis C, Holley JL, Foulks CJ, Pillai K, McDowell DE: Use of a silicone dual-lumen catheter with a Dacron cuff as a long-term vascular access for hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 16:211-215, 1990

74. Canaud B, Beraud JJ, Joyeux H, Mion C: Internal jugular vein cannulation with two silicone rubber catheters: A new and safe temporary vascular access for hemodialysis. Thirty months’ experience. Artif Organs 10:397-403, 1986

75. Canaud B, Beraud JJ, Joyeux H, Mion C: Internal jugular vein cannulation using 2 silastic catheters: A new simple and safe long-term vascular access for extracorporeal treatment. Nephron 43:133-138, 1986

76. Uldall R, Debruyne M, Besley M, Mcmillan J, Simons M, Francoeur R: A new vascular access catheter for hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 21:270-277, 1993

77. Millner MR, Kerns SR, Hawkins IF Jr, Sabatelli FW, Ross EA: Tesio twin dialysis catheter system: a new catheter for hemodialysis. Am J Roentgenol 164:1519-1520, 1995

78. Suchoki P, Conlon P, Knelson M, Harland RC, Schwab SJ: Silastic cuffed catheters for hemodialysis vascular access: Thrombolytic and mechanical correction of HD catheters malfunction. Am J Kidney Dis 28:379-386, 1996

79. Crain MR, Mewissen MW, Ostrowski GJ, Paz-Fumagalli R, Beres RA, Wertz RA: Fibrin sleeve stripping for salvage of failing hemodialysis catheters: Technique and initial results. Radiology 198:41-44, 1996

80. Shaffer D: Catheter-related sepsis complicating long-term, tunnelled central venous dialysis catheters: Management by guidewire exchange. Am J Kidney Dis 25:593-596, 1995

81. Kovalik EC, Raymond JR, Albers FA, Berkoben M, Montella B, Conlon PJ: A clustering of epidural abscesses in chronic hemodialysis patients: Risks of salvaging access catheters in cases of infection. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:2264-2267, 1996

82. Caruana RJ, Raja RM, Zeit RM, Goldstein SJ, Kramer MS: Thrombotic complications of indwelling central catheters used for chronic hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 9:497-501, 1987

83. Schwab SJ: Assessing the adequacy of vascular access and its relationship to patient outcome. Am J Kidney Dis 24:316-320, 1994

84. Atherikul K, Schwab SJ, Twardowski ZJ, Tesio F, De Baz H, Panarello G, Canaud B, Leray-Moragues H, Garred LJ, Turc-Baron C, Mion, C, Vanholder, R., Lew SQ: What is the role of permanent central vein access in hemodialysis patients? Semin Dial 9:392-403, 1996

85. DeMeester J, Vanholder R, Ringole S: Factors affecting catheter and technique survival in permanent silicone single lumen dialysis catheters. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:361A, 1992 (abstr)

86. Schillinger F, Schillinger D, Montagnac R, Milcent T: Post catheterisation vein stenosis in haemodialysis: Comparative angiographic study of 50 subclavian and 50 internal jugular accesses. Nephrol Dial Transplant 6:722-724, 1991

87. Cimochowski GE, Worley E, Rutherford WE, Sartain J, Blondin J, Harter H: Superiority of the internal jugular over the subclavian access for temporary hemodialysis. Nephron 54:154-161, 1990

88. Lund GB, Trerotola SO, Scheel PJ Jr: Percutaneous translumbar inferior vena cava cannulation for hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 25:732-737, 1995

89. Lameris JS, Post PJM, Zonderland HM, Gerritsen PG, Kappers-Klunne MC, Schutte HE: Percutaneous placement of Hickman catheters: comparison of sonographically guided and blind techniques. Am J Roentgenol 155:1097-1099, 1990

90. Mallory DL, McGee WT, Shawker TH, Brenner M, Bailey KR, Ecans RG, Parker MM, Farmer JC, Parillo JE: Ultrasound guidance improves the success rate of internal jugular vein cannulation. Chest 98:157-160, 1990

91. Dahlberg PJ, Yutuc WR, Newcomer KL: Subclavian hemodialysis catheter infections. Am J Kidney Dis 7:421-427, 1986

92. Kelber J, Delmez JA, Windus DW: Factors affecting delivery of high-efficiency dialysis using temporary vascular access. Am J Kidney Dis 22:24-29, 1993

93. Blake PG, Huraib S, Wu G, Uldall PR: The use of dual lumen jugular venous catheters as definitive long term access for hemodialysis. Int J Artif Organs 13:26-31, 1990

94. Jaques PF, Mauro MA, Keefe B: US guidance for vascular access: Technical note. J Vasc Interv Radiol 3:427-430, 1992

95. Hartle E, Conlon P, Capstens R, Schwab SJ: Ultrasound guided cannulation of the femoral vein for acute hemodialysis access. J Am Soc Nephrol 352A, 1993 (abstr)

96. Troianos CA, Jobes DR, Ellison N: Ultrasound-guided cannulation of the internal jugular vein: A prospective, randomized study. Anesth Analg 72:823-826, 1991 - No Abstract Available

97. Tapson JS, Uldall PR: Fatal hemothorax caused by a subclavian hemodialysis catheter: Thoughts on prevention. Arch Intern Med 144:1685-1687, 1984

98. Tapson JS, Uldall R: Avoiding deaths from subclavian cannulation for hemodialysis. Int J Artif Organs 6:227-230, 1983 - No Abstract Available

99. Vanholder R, Hoenich N, Ringoir S: Morbidity and mortality of central venous catheter hemodialysis: A review of 10 years’ experience. Nephron 47:274-279, 1987

100. Vanherweghem J-L, Cabolet P, Dhaene M, Goldman M, Stolear J-C, Sabot J-P, Waterlot Y, Marchal M: Complications related to subclavian catheters for hemodialysis. Am J Nephrol 6:339-345, 1986

101. Zeien LB, Noguchi TT: Fatal hydrothorax associated with subclavian vein catheterization for hemodialysis. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 13:326-328, 1992

102. Spinowitz BS, Galler M, Golden RA, Rascoff JH, Schechter L, Held B, Charytan C: Subclavian vein stenosis as a complication of subclavian catheterization for hemodialysis. Arch Intern Med 147:305-307, 1987

103. Beathard GA: Percutaneous angioplasty for the treatment of venous stenosis: A nephrologists view. Semin Dial 8:166-170, 1995

104. Polaschegg HD: The extracorporeal circuit. Semin Dial 8:299-304, 1995

105. Bosch JP, Barlee V, Valdecasa JG: Blood flow measurement during hemodialysis. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:83-88, 1994 - No Abstract Available

106. Beathard GA: Physical examination of AV grafts. Semin Dial 5:74-74, 1996

107. Beathard GA: The treatment of vascular access graft dysfunction: A nephrologist’s view and experience. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:131-147, 1994

108. Trerotola SO, Scheel PJ, Powe NR, Prescott C, Feeley N, He J, Watson A: Screening for access graft malfunction: comparison of physical examination with US. J Vasc Interv Radiol 7:15-20, 1996

109. Burger H, Zijlstra JJ, Kluchert SA, Scholten AP, Kootstra G: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty improves longevity in fistulae and shunts for hemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 5:608-611, 1990

110. Rodkin RS, Bookstein JJ, Heeney DJ, Davis GB: Streptokinase and transluminal angioplasty in the treatment of acutely thrombosed hemodialysis access fistulas. Radiology 149:425-428, 1983

111. Kanterman RY, Vesely TM, Pilgram TK, Guy BW, Windus DW, Picus D: Dialysis access grafts: anatomic location of venous stenosis and results of angioplasty. Radiology 195:135-139, 1995

112. Glanz S, Gordon DH, Butt KMH, Hong J, Lipkowitz GS: The role of percutaneous angioplasty in the management of chronic hemodialysis fistulas. Ann Surg 206:777-781, 1987

113. Windus DW, Audrain J, Vanderson R, Jendrisak M, Picus D, Delmez JA: Optimization of high-efficiency dialysis by detection and correction of vascular access dysfunction. Kidney Int 38:337-341, 1990

114. Sullivan KL, Besarab A, Bonn J, Shapiro MJ, Gardiner GA Jr, Moritz MJ: Hemodynamics of failing dialysis grafts. Radiology 186:867-872, 1993

115. Besarab A, Ross R, Al-Aljel F, Deane C, Frinak S, Zasuwa G: The relation of brachial artery flow to access flow. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:483A, 1995 (abstr)

116. Schackelton CR, Taylor DC, Buckley AR, Rowley VA, Cooperberg PL, Fry PD: Predicting failure in polytetrafluoroethylene vascular access grafts for hemodialysis: A pilot study. Can J Surg 30:442-444, 1987

117. Strauch BS, O’Connell RS, Geoly KL, Grundlehner M, Yakub YN, Tietjen DP: Forecasting thrombosis of vascular access with Doppler color flow imaging. Am J Kidney Dis 19:554-557, 1992

118. Depner TA, Reasons A: Longevity of peripheral A-V grafts and fistulae for hemodialysis is related to access blood flow. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:1405-1405, 1996

119. Schwab SJ, Raymond JR, Saeed M, Newman GE, Dennis PA, Bollinger RR: Prevention of hemodialysis fistula thrombosis. Early detection of venous stenoses. Kidney Int 36:707-711, 1989

120. Finlay DE, Longley DG, Foshager MC, Letourneau JG: Duplex and color Doppler sonography of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. Radiographics 13:983-989, 1993

121. Krivitsky NM: Theory and validation of access flow measurement by dilution technique during hemodialysis. Kidney Int 48:244-250, 1995

122. Depner TA, Krivitsky NM: Clinical measurement of blood flow in hemodialysis access fistulae and grafts by ultrasound dilution. ASAIO J 41:M745-M749, 1995

123. Oudenhoven LFIJ, Pattynama PMT, De Roos A, Seeverens HJJ, Rebergen SA, Chang PC: Magnetic resonance, a new method for measuring blood flow in hemodialysis fistulae. Kidney Int 45:884-889, 1994

124. Kirschbaum B, Compton A: Study of vascular access blood flow by angiodynography. Am J Kidney Dis 25:22-25, 1995

125. Beathard GA: Percutaneous therapy of vascular access dysfunction: Optimal management of access stenosis and thrombosis. Semin Dial 7:165-167, 1994

126. Safa AA, Valji K, Roberts AC, Ziegler TW, Hye RJ, Oglevie SB: Detection and treatment of dysfunctional hemodialysis access grafts: Effects of a surveillance program on graft patency and the incidence of thrombosis. Radiology 199:653-657, 1996

127. Besarab A, Al-Saghir F, Al-Nabhan N, Lubkowski T, Frinak S: Simplified measurement of intra-access pressure. ASAIO J 42:106-106, 1996

128. Collins DM, Lambert MB, Middleton JP, Proctor RK, Davidson CJ, Newman GE, Schwab SJ: Fistula dysfunction: Effect on rapid hemodialysis. Kidney Int 41:1292-1296, 1992

129. Besarab A, Dorrell S, Moritz M, Michael H, Sullivan K: Determinants of measured dialysis venous pressure and its relationship to true intra-access venous pressure. ASAIO Trans 37:M270-M271, 1991

130. Besarab A, Sherman RA: The relationship of recirculation to access blood type. Am J Kidney Dis 29:223-229, 1997

131. Depner TA, Rizwan S, Cheer AY, Wagner JM, Eder LA: High venous urea concentrations in the opposite arm: A consequence of hemodialysis-induced compartment disequilibrium. ASAIO Trans 37:M141-M143, 1991

132. Van Stone JC: Peripheral venous blood is not the appropriate specimen to determine the amount of recirculation during hemodialysis. ASAIO J 42:41-45, 1996

133. Sherman RA: The measurement of dialysis access recirculation. Am J Kidney Dis 22:616-621, 1993

134. Sherman RA, Kapoian T: Recirculation, urea disequilibrium and dialysis efficiency: Peripheral arteriovenous versus central venovenous vascular access. Am J Kidney Dis 29:479-489, 1997

135. Gani JS, Fowler PR, Steinberg AW, Wlodarczyk JH, Nanra RS, Hibberd AD: Use of the fistula assessment monitor to detect stenoses in access fistulae. Am J Kidney Dis 17:303-306, 1991

136. Tattersall JE, Farrington K, Raniga PD, Thompson H, Tomlinson C, Aldridge C, Greenwood RN: Haemodialysis recirculation detected by the three-sample method is an artefact. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8:60-63, 1995

137. Hester RL, Curry E, Bower J: The determination of hemodialysis blood recirculation using blood urea nitrogen measurements. Am J Kidney Dis 20:598-602, 1992

138. Depner TA, Krivitsky NM, MacGibbon D: Hemodialysis access recirculation measured by ultrasound dilution. ASAIO J 41:M749-M753, 1995

139. Kaplowitz LG, Comstock JA, Landwehr DM, Dalton HP, Mayhall CG: A prospective study of infections in hemodialysis patients: Patient hygiene and other risk factors for infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 9:534-541, 1988

140. Vanherweghem JL, Dhaene M, Goldman M, Stolear JC, Sabot JP, Waterlot Y, Serruys E, Thayse C: Infections associated with subclavian dialysis catheters: The key role of nurse training. Nephron 42:116-119, 1986

141. Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control: Draft guideline for prevention of intravascular device-related infections: Part 1. Intravascular device-related infections: An overview. and Part 2. Recommendations for prevention of intravascular device-related infections; Notice of comment period. Fed Reg 60:49978-50006, 1995

142. Champagne S, Fussell S, Scheifele D: Evaluation of skin antisepsis prior to blood culture in neonates. Infect Control 5:489-491, 1984

143. Goldblum SE, Ulrich JA, Goldman RS, Reed WP, Avasthi S: Comparison of 4% chlorohexidine gluconate in a detergent base (Hibiclens) and povidine-iodine (Betadine) for the skin preparation of hemodialysis patients and personnel. Am J Kidney Dis 2:548-552, 1983

144. Nicoletti G, Boghossian V, Borland R: Hygenic hand disinfection: A comparative study with chlorhexidine detergents and soap. J Hospital Infect 15:323-337, 1990

145. Larson EL, Morton HE: Alcohols, in Seymour SB (ed): Disinfectant, Sterilization, and Preservation (ed 4). Melvern, PA, Lee and Sebiger, 1991, pp 191-203

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147. Hartigan MF: Vascular access and nephrology nursing practice: Existing views and rationales for change. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:155-162, 1994

148. Keohane PP, Attrill H, Northover J, Jones BJM, Cribb A, Frost P, Silk DBA: Effect of catheter tunnelling and a nutrition nurse on catheter sepsis during parenteral nutrition: A controlled trial. Lancet 2:1388-1390, 1983

149. Conly JM, Grieves K, Peters B: A prospective, randomized study comparing transparent and dry gauze dressings for central venous catheters. J Infect Dis 159:310-319, 1989

150. Maki DG, Band JD: A comparative study of polyantibiotic and iodophor ointments in prevention of vascular catheter-related infection. Am J Med 70:739-744, 1981

151. Levin A, Mason AJ, Jindal KK, Fong IW, Goldstein MB: Prevention of hemodialysis subclavian vein catheter infections by topical povidone-iodine. Kidney Int 40:934-938, 1991

152. Hoffman MA, Langer JC, Pearl RH, Filler RM: Electrocardiographic guided placement of central venous catheters. Br J Surg 76:1032-1033, 1989

153. Marr K, Krekland K, Seefon D, Conlon P, Conly R, Schwab SJ: Catheter related bacteremia in hemodialysis patients. Ann Intern Med 1997

154. Kirmani E, Tuazon CU, Murray HW, Parrish AE, Sheagren JN: Staphylococcus aureus carriage rate. Arch Intern Med 138:1657-1659, 1978

155. Boelaert JR: Staphylococcus aureus infection in haemodialysis patients. Mupiroxin as a topical strategy. J Chemother 6:19-27, 1994

156. Yu VL, Goetz A, Wagener M, Smith P, Rihs J, Hanchett J, Zuravleff JJ: Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection in patients on hemodialysis. Efficacy of prophylaxis. N Engl J Med 315:91-96, 1986

157. Mattson WJ: Recognition and treatment of vascular steal secondary to hemodialysis prostheses. Am J Surg 154:198-201, 1987

158. Valji K, Bookstein JJ, Roberts AC, Oglevie SB, Pittman C, Oneill MP: Pulse-spray pharmacomechanical thrombolysis of thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts: Long-term experience and comparison of original and current techniques. Am J Roentgenol 164:1495-1500, 1995

159. Roberts AC, Valji K, Bookstein JJ, Hye RJ: Pulse-spray pharmacomechanical thrombolysis for treatment of thrombosed dialysis access grafts. Am J Surg 166:221-226, 1993

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