KDOQI (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative)

NKF K/DOQI GUIDELINES

Executive Summaries | Anemia | Hemodialysis | Peritoneal Dialysis |
Vascular Access | Nutrition | CKD 2002 | Dyslipidemias | Bone Metabolism | Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents | History of K/DOQI



  K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines on Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Chronic Kidney Disease

Figures

Figure 1. Kidney Failure in the United States

Figure 2. Conceptual Model for Stages in the Initiation and Progression of CKD

Figure 3. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure by Level of GFR, Adjusted to Age 60 Years (NHANES III)

Figure 4. CVD Mortality in Dialysis Patients (USRDS) Compared to the General Population (NCHS)

Figure 5. Albuminuria as a Risk Factor for CVD

Figure 6. Decreased GFR as a Risk Factor for CVD

Figure 7. Risk Factors for Kidney Disease Progression Related to Hypertension

Figure 8. Evolution of National Kidney Foundation Guidelines for Hypertension and Use of Antihypertensive Agents in CKD

Figure 9. Algorithm for Evaluation and Management of Hypertension and Use of Antihypertensive Agents in CKD

Figure 10. Kidney Failure in the United States

Figure 11. Conceptual Model for Stages in the Initiation and Progression of CKD, and Therapeutic Interventions

Figure 12. Relationship of Stage and Type of Kidney Disease to Prognosis in CKD

Figure 13. Relationship of Stage of Kidney Disease and Level of Albuminuria to Prognosis in CKD

Figure 14. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure by Level of GFR, Adjusted to Age 60 Years

Figure 15. Prevalence of Elevated Serum Creatinine by JNC 6 Blood Pressure Category and Self-Reported Treatment With Antihypertensive Medications in NHANES III

Figure 16. Estimated Number of Individuals With Elevated Serum Creatinine by JNC 6 Blood Pressure Category and Self-Reported Treatment With Antihypertensive Medications (NHANES III)

Figure 17. Conceptual Model for Stages in the Initiation and Progression of CVD, and Therapeutic Interventions in the General Population

Figure 18. CVD Mortality in Dialysis Patients (USRDS) Compared to the General Population (NCHS)

Figure 19. CVD Mortality in Kidney Transplant Recipients (USRDS) Compared to the General Population (NCHS)

Figure 20. Albuminuria as a Risk Factor for CVD in Individuals Without Diabetes

Figure 21. Decreased GFR as a Risk Factor for CVD

Figure 22. Kidney Function Decline in CKD

Figure 23. GFR Slopes in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study

Figure 24. Risk Factors for Kidney Disease Progression Related to Hypertension

Figure 25. Effect of Antihypertensive Drugs on Systemic and Glomerular Pressure

Figure 26. Mechanisms of Antihypertensive Agents to Slow Progression of CKD

Figure 27. Schematic Diagram of Population With CKD and CVD

Figure 28. General Approach to Hypertension and Use of Antihypertensive Agents in CKD

Figure 29. Age-Associated Decline in Estimated GFR in NHANES III

Figure 30. Evaluation for Proteinuria

Figure 31. Evaluation of Patients With CKD for Treatment of Hypertension and Use of Antihypertensive Agents

Figure 32. Use of the Score to Estimate the Probability of RAD

Figure 33. Mean Change in SBP From Baseline in Hypertensive Participants of the DASH Study During 8 Weeks of Intervention by Diet Assignments—DASH or Control Diets

Figure 34. Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in CKD

Figure 35. Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT)

Figure 36. Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT)

Figure 37. Collaborative Study Group (CSG) Captopril Trial

Figure 38. Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT)

Figure 39. Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM With the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL)

Figure 40. Meta-Analysis of Studies of Diabetic and Nondiabetic Kidney Disease

Figure 41. Meta-Analysis of Studies of Diabetic and Nondiabetic Kidney Disease

Figure 42. Blood Pressure Level and Rate of GFR Decline in Controlled Trials of Diabetic Kidney Disease

Figure 43. Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Diabetic Kidney Disease

Figure 44. ACE Inhibition in Progressive Renal Disease (AIPRD) Study Group Pooled Analysis

Figure 45. ACE Inhibition in Progressive Renal Disease (AIPRD) Study Group Pooled Analysis

Figure 46. African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK)

Figure 47. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study

Figure 48. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study

Figure 49. African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK)

Figure 50. ACE Inhibition and Progressive Renal Disease (AIPRD) Study Group Pooled Analysis

Figure 51. Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Nondiabetic Kidney Disease

Figure 52. Relationship between SBP and Graft Survival

Figure 53. Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Kidney Transplant Recipients

Figure 54. Physiology of the Renin-Angiotensin System and Sites of Action of ACE Inhibitors and Angiotensin-Receptor Blockers

Figure 55. Physiology of Side-Effects of ACE Inhibitors

Figure 56. Determinants of Diuretic Loop Response

Figure 57. Rationale for Combination of ARBs or ACE Inhibitors With Diuretics

Figure 58. Blood Pressure Cuff Dimensions

Figure 59. Determination of Proper Cuff Size, Step 1

Figure 60. Determination of Proper Cuff Size, Step 2

Figure 61. Blood Pressure Measurement

Figure 62. The Evolution of National Kidney Foundation Guidelines on Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in CKD

Figure 63. Comparison of the Diagnosis of Hypertension Using Casual Blood Pressure and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

Figure 64. Standardized Common Patterns of ABPM

Figure 65. Blunting of the Diurnal Blood Pressure Rhythm of Predialysis Patients Is More Severe at Lower GFR (Higher Serum Creatinine Concentration)

Figure 66. Kaplan-Meier Curves Showing the Probability of Developing CKD (Microalbuminuria) According to the Pattern of Daytime and Nighttime Systolic Pressure in Diabetics

Figure 67. Survival Curves of Diabetic Subjects With Normal and Reversed Circadian Blood Pressure Rhythms

Figure 68. Relationship Between End-Systolic Left Ventricular Diameter and Percent Fall in Blood Pressure (Sleep to Awake) in Hemodialysis Patients and Kidney Transplant Recipients

Figure 69. Night to Day Blood Pressure Ratio and 24-Hour SBP at Entry as Predictors of the 2-Year Incidence of Cardiovascular End-Points in 393 Patients Randomized to the Placebo Group of the Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial

Figure 70. Diurnal Blood Pressure Rhythm in Diabetic Kidney Disease

Figure 71. Correlation of Creatinine Values in Patients 6 Months After Kidney Transplantation With 24-Hour SBP and DBP

Figure 72. Rates of Major Cardiovascular Events

Figure 73. Comparison of Cuff Blood Pressure, 24-Hour ABPM, and Night-Time ABP in the HOPE Study and a HOPE Substudy