KDOQI (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative)


Executive Summaries | Anemia | Hemodialysis | Peritoneal Dialysis |
Vascular Access | Nutrition | CKD 2002 | Dyslipidemias | Bone Metabolism | Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents | Cardiovascular Disease in Dialysis Patients | History of K/DOQ | Pediatric Bone |

KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bone Metabolism and Disease in Children With Chronic Kidney Disease


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2. Klaus G, Jux C, Leiber K, Hugel U, Mehls O: Interaction between insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, parathyroid hormone, 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and steroids on epiphyseal chondrocytes. Acta Paediatr Suppl 417:69-71, 1996

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13. Feldman HI, Held PJ, Hutchinson JT, Stoiber E, Hartigan MF, Berlin JA: Hemodialysis vascular access morbidity in the United States. Kidney Int 43:1091-1096, 1993

14. Hutchison AJ, Whitehouse RW, Boulton HF, Adams JE, Mawer EB, Freemont TJ, Gokal R: Correlation of bone histology with parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and radiology in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 44:1071-1077, 1993

15. Gerakis A, Hutchison AJ, Apostolou T, Freemont AJ, Billis A: Biochemical markers for non-invasive diagnosis of hyperparathyroid bone disease and adynamic bone in patients on haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:2430-2438, 1996

16. Quigg RJ, Brathwaite M, Gardner DF, Gretch DR, Ruddy S: Successful cyclophosphamide treatment of cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Am J Kidney Dis 25:798-800, 1995

17. Qi Q, Monier-Faugere MC, Geng Z, Malluche HH: Predictive value of serum parathyroid hormone levels for bone turnover in patients on chronic maintenance dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 26:622-631, 1995

18. Block GA, Port FK: Re-evaluation of risks associated with hyperphosphatemia and hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients: recommendations for a change in management. Am J Kidney Dis 35:1226-1237, 2000

19. Urena P, Ferreira A, Kung VT, Morieux C, Simon P, Ang KS, Souberbielle JC, Segre GV, Drueke TB, De Vernejoul MC: Serum pyridinoline as a specific marker of collagen breakdown and bone metabolism in hemodialysis patients. J Bone Miner Res 10:932-939, 1995

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22. Salusky IB, Ramirez JA, Oppenheim W, Gales B, Segre GV, Goodman WG: Biochemical markers of renal osteodystrophy in pediatric patients undergoing CAPD/CCPD. Kidney Int 45:253-258, 1994

23. Mathias R, Salusky I, Harman W, Paredes A, Emans J, Segre G, Goodman W: Renal bone disease in pediatric and young adult patients on hemodialysis in a children's hospital. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:1938-1946, 1993

24. Ziolkowska H, Paniczyk-Tomaszewska M, Debinski A, Polowiec Z, Sawicki A, Sieniawska M: Bone biopsy results and serum bone turnover parameters in uremic children. Acta Paediatr 89:666-671, 2000

25. Solal ME, Sebert JL, Boudailliez B, Marie A, Moriniere P, Gueris J, Bouillon R, Fournier A: Comparison of intact, midregion, and carboxy terminal assays of parathyroid hormone for the diagnosis of bone disease in hemodialyzed patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:516-524, 1991

26. Wang M, Hercz G, Sherrard DJ, Maloney NA, Segre GV, Pei Y: Relationship between intact 1-84 parathyroid hormone and bone histomorphometric parameters in dialysis patients without aluminum toxicity. Am J Kidney Dis 26:836-844, 1995

27. Huraib S, Souqqiyeh MZ, Aswad S, al-Swailem AR: Pattern of renal osteodystrophy in haemodialysis patients in Saudi Arabia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8:603-608, 1993

28. DeVita MV, Rasenas LL, Bansal M, Gleim GW, Zabetakis PM, Gardenswartz MH, Michelis MF: Assessment of renal osteodystrophy in hemodialysis patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 71:284-290, 1992

29. Eastwood JB: Quantitative bone histology in 38 patients with advanced renal failure. J Clin Pathol 35:125-134, 1982

30. Hasselblad V, Hedges LV: Meta-analysis of screening and diagnostic tests. Psychol Bull 117:167-178, 1995

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32. Leonard MB, Feldman HI, Zemel BS, Berlin JA, Barden EM, Stallings VA: Evaluation of low density spine software for the assessment of bone mineral density in children. J Bone Miner Res 13:1687-1690, 1998

33. Leonard MB, Propert KJ, Zemel BS, Stallings VA, Feldman HI: Discrepancies in pediatric bone mineral density reference data: potential for misdiagnosis of osteopenia. J Pediatr 135:182-188, 1999

34. Molgaard C, Thomsen BL, Prentice A, Cole TJ, Michaelsen KF: Whole body bone mineral content in healthy children and adolescents. Arch Dis Child 76:9-15, 1997

35. Klaus G, Paschen C, Wuster C, Kovacs GT, Barden J, Mehls O, Scharer K: Weight-/height-related bone mineral density is not reduced after renal transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol 12:343-348, 1998

36. Kim MS, Kim YS, Lim SK, Kim SI, Moon JI, Park K: Effect of deflazacort on bone mineral density in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 30:3041-3042, 1998

37. Hurst G, Alloway R, Hathaway D, Somerville T, Hughes T, Gaber A: Stabilization of bone mass after renal transplant with preemptive care. Transplant Proc 30:1327-1328, 1998

38. Aroldi A, Tarantino A, Montagnino G, Cesana B, Cocucci C, Ponticelli C: Effects of three immunosuppressive regimens on vertebral bone density in renal transplant recipients: a prospective study. Transplantation 63:380-386, 1997

39. Pichette V, Bonnardeaux A, Prudhomme L, Gagne M, Cardinal J, Ouimet D: Long-term bone loss in kidney transplant recipients: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Am J Kidney Dis 28:105-114, 1996

40. Setterberg L, Sandberg J, Elinder CG, Nordenstrom J: Bone demineralization after renal transplantation: contribution of secondary hyperparathyroidism manifested by hypercalcaemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11:1825-1828, 1996

41. Yazawa K, Ishikawa T, Ichikawa Y, Shin J, Usui Y, Hanafusa T, Fukunishi T, Sakai R, Nagano S, Fujita N, Mizuno K: Positive effects of kidney transplantation on bone mass. Transplant Proc 30:3031-3033, 1998

42. Torres A, Lorenzo V, Gonzalez-Posada JM: Comparison of histomorphometry and computerized tomography of the spine in quantitating trabecular bone in renal osteodystrophy. Nephron 44:282-287, 1986

43. Glorieux FH, Travers R, Taylor A, Bowen JR, Rauch F, Norman M, Parfitt AM: Normative data for iliac bone histomorphometry in growing children. Bone 26:103-109, 2000

44. Mehls O, Ritz E, Gilli G, Kreusser W: Growth in renal failure. Nephron 21:237-247, 1978

45. Castaneda C, Gordon PL, Uhlin KL, Levey AS, Kehayias JJ, Dwyer JT, Fielding RA, Roubenoff R, Singh MF: Resistance training to counteract the catabolism of a low-protein diet in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 135:965-976, 2001

46. Davids JR, Fisher R, Lum G, Von Glinski S: Angular deformity of the lower extremity in children with renal osteodystrophy. J Pediatr Orthop 12:291-299, 1992

47. Oppenheim WL, Fischer SR, Salusky IB: Surgical correction of angular deformity of the knee in children with renal osteodystrophy. J Pediatr Orthop 17:41-49, 1997

48. Apel DM, Millar EA, Moel DI: Skeletal disorders in a pediatric renal transplant population. J Pediatr Orthop 9:505-511, 1989

49. Barrett IR, Papadimitriou DG: Skeletal disorders in children with renal failure. J Pediatr Orthop 16:264-272, 1996

50. Beskin JL, Burke SW, Johnston CE 2nd, Roberts JM: Clinical basis for a mechanical etiology in adolescent Blount's disease. Orthopedics 9:365-370, 1986

51. Blockey NJ, Murphy AV, Mocan H: Management of rachitic deformities in children with chronic renal failure. J Bone Joint Surg Br 68:791-794, 1986

52. Evans GA, Arulanantham K, Gage JR: Primary hypophosphatemic rickets. Effect of oral phosphate and vitamin D on growth and surgical treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am 62:1130-1138, 1980

53. Fine RN, Isaacson AS, Payne V, Grushkin CM: Renal osteodystrophy in children: the effect of hemodialysis and renal homotransplantation. J Pediatr 80:243-249, 1972

54. Mehls O, Ritz E, Oppermann HC, Guignard JP: Femoral head necrosis in uremic children without steroid treatment or transplantation. J Pediatr 99:926-929, 1981

55. Rubinovitch M, Said SE, Glorieux FH, Cruess RL, Rogala E: Principles and results of corrective lower limb osteotomies for patients with vitamin D-resistant hypophosphatemic rickets. Clin Orthop:264-270, 1988

56. Salenius P, Vankka E: The development of the tibiofemoral angle in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 57:259-261, 1975

57. Loder RT, Hensinger RN: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis associated with renal failure osteodystrophy. J Pediatr Orthop 17:205-211, 1997

58. Mehls O, Ritz E, Krempien B, Gilli G, Link K, Willich E, Scharer K: Slipped epiphyses in renal osteodystrophy. Arch Dis Child 50:545-554, 1975

59. Swierstra BA, Diepstraten AF, vd Heyden BJ: Distal femoral physiolysis in renal osteodystrophy. Successful nonoperative treatment of 3 cases followed for 5 years. Acta Orthop Scand 64:382-384, 1993

60. Tebor GB, Ehrlich MG, Herrin J: Slippage of the distal tibial epiphysis. J Pediatr Orthop 3:211-215, 1983

61. Hartjen CA, Koman LA: Treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis resulting from juvenile renal osteodystrophy. J Pediatr Orthop 10:551-554, 1990

62. Oppenheim WL, Bowen RE, McDonough PW, Funahashi TT, Salusky IB: Outcome of slipped capital femoral epiphysis in renal osteodystrophy. J Pediatr Orthop 23:169-174, 2003

63. Boechat MI, Winters WD, Hogg RJ, Fine RN, Watkins SL: Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children with chronic renal disease. Radiology 218:411-413, 2001

64. Watkins SL: Bone disease in patients receiving growth hormone. Kidney Int Suppl 53:S126-S127, 1996

65. Harrington KD, Murray WR, Kountz SL, Belzer FO: Avascular necrosis of bone after renal transplantation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 53:203-215, 1971

66. Ibels LS, Alfrey AC, Huffer WE, Weil R 3rd: Aseptic necrosis of bone following renal transplantation: experience in 194 transplant recipients and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 57:25-45, 1978

67. Stern PJ, Watts HG: Osteonecrosis after renal transplantation in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 61:851-856, 1979

68. Davidson JK, Tsakiris D, Briggs JD, Junor BJ: Osteonecrosis and fractures following renal transplantation. Clin Radiol 36:27-35, 1985

69. Murray WR: Hip problems associated with organ transplants. Clin Orthop 90:57-69, 1973

70. Brodehl J, Gellissen K, Weber HP: Postnatal development of tubular phosphate reabsorption. Clin Nephrol 17:163-171, 1982

71. Burritt MF, Slockbower JM, Forsman RW, Offord KP, Bergstralh EJ, Smithson WA: Pediatric reference intervals for 19 biologic variables in healthy children. Mayo Clin Proc 65:329-336, 1990

72. Arnaud SB, Goldsmith RS, Stickler GB, McCall JT, Arnaud CD: Serum parathyroid hormone and blood minerals: interrelationships in normal children. Pediatr Res 7:485-493, 1973

73. Greenberg BG, Winters RW, Graham JB: The normal range of serum inorganic phosphorus and its utility as a discriminant in the diagnosis of congenital hypophosphatemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 20:364-379, 1960

74. Portale AA, Booth BE, Halloran BP, Morris RC Jr: Effect of dietary phosphorus on circulating concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone in children with moderate renal insufficiency. J Clin Invest 73:1580-1589, 1984

75. Portale AA, Halloran BP, Morris RC Jr: Dietary intake of phosphorus modulates the circadian rhythm in serum concentration of phosphorus. Implications for the renal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. J Clin Invest 80:1147-1154, 1987

76. Markowitz ME, Rosen JF, Laxminarayan S, Mizruchi M: Circadian rhythms of blood minerals during adolescence. Pediatr Res 18:456-462, 1984

77. Naveh-Many T, Rahamimov R, Livni N, Silver J: Parathyroid cell proliferation in normal and chronic renal failure rats. The effects of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. J Clin Invest 96:1786-1793, 1995

78. Slatopolsky E, Finch J, Denda M, Ritter C, Zhong M, Dusso A, MacDonald PN, Brown AJ: Phosphorus restriction prevents parathyroid gland growth. High phosphorus directly stimulates PTH secretion in vitro. J Clin Invest 97:2534-2540, 1996

79. Kimura K, Saika Y, Otani H, Fujii R, Mune M, Yukawa S: Factors associated with calcification of the abdominal aorta in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int Suppl 71:S238-S241, 1999

80. Goodman WG, Goldin J, Kuizon BD, Yoon C, Gales B, Sider D, Wang Y, Chung J, Emerick A, Greaser L, Elashoff RM, Salusky IB: Coronary-artery calcification in young adults with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing dialysis. N Engl J Med 342:1478-1483, 2000

81. Mazhar AR, Johnson RJ, Gillen D, Stivelman JC, Ryan MJ, Davis CL, Stehman-Breen CO: Risk factors and mortality associated with calciphylaxis in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 60:324-332, 2001

82. Ahmed S, O'Neill KD, Hood AF, Evan AP, Moe SM: Calciphylaxis is associated with hyperphosphatemia and increased osteopontin expression by vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Kidney Dis 37:1267-1276, 2001

83. Marchais SJ, Metivier F, Guerin AP, London GM: Association of hyperphosphataemia with haemodynamic disturbances in end-stage renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 14:2178-2183, 1999

84. Guerin AP, London GM, Marchais SJ, Metivier F: Arterial stiffening and vascular calcifications in end-stage renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 15:1014-1021, 2000

85. Block GA, Hulbert-Shearon TE, Levin NW, Port FK: Association of serum phosphorus and calcium x phosphate product with mortality risk in chronic hemodialysis patients: a national study. Am J Kidney Dis 31:607-617, 1998

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87. Blacher J, Guerin AP, Pannier B, Marchais SJ, London GM: Arterial calcifications, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular risk in end-stage renal disease. Hypertension 38:938-942, 2001

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89. Jono S, McKee MD, Murry CE, Shioi A, Nishizawa Y, Mori K, Morii H, Giachelli CM: Phosphate regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. Circ Res 87:E10-E17, 2000

90. Rostand SG, Sanders C, Kirk KA, Rutsky EA, Fraser RG: Myocardial calcification and cardiac dysfunction in chronic renal failure. Am J Med 85:651-657, 1988

91. Katz AI, Hampers CL, Merrill JP: Secondary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy in chronic renal failure. Analysis of 195 patients, with observations on the effects of chronic dialysis, kidney transplantation and subtotal parathyroidectomy. Medicine (Baltimore) 48:333-374, 1969

92. Raggi P, Reinmuller R, Chertow GM: Cardiac calcification is prevalent and severe in ESRD patients as measured by electron beam CT scanning. J Am Soc Nephrol Abstract A0405:75A, 2000

93. Oh J, Wunsch R, Turzer M, Bahner M, Raggi P, Querfeld U, Mehls O, Schaefer F: Advanced coronary and carotid arteriopathy in young adults with childhood-onset chronic renal failure. Circulation 106:100-105, 2002

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119. Tenenhouse HS, Murer H: Disorders of Renal Tubular Phosphate Transport. J Am Soc Nephrol 14:240-247, 2003

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