NKF K/DOQI GUIDELINES 2000
 
 

GUIDELINES FOR PERITONEAL DIALYSIS ADEQUACY

IX. References

1. Deleted in proof.

2. National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure. Am J Kidney Dis 35:S1-S140, 2000 (suppl 2)

3. US Renal Data Systems: The USRDS Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study (Wave 1), in National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (ed): US Renal Data Systems 1997 Annual Data Report. Bethesda, MD, 1997, pp 49-67

4. Kopple JD, Chumlea WC, Gassman JJ, Hotlinger DL, Maroni BJ, Merrill D, Scherch LK, Schulman G, Zimmer GS: Relationship between GFR and nutritional status–Results from the MDRD study. J Am Soc Nephrol 5:335A, 1994 (abstr)

5. Pollock CA: Protein intake in renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 8:777-783, 1997

6. Ikizler TA, Greene JH, Wingard RL, Parker RA, Hakim RM: Spontaneous dietary protein intake during progression of chronic renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol 6:1386-1391, 1995

7. Hertel J, Lightfoot B, Fincher ME, McConnell KR, Caruna RJ: Correlation between urea reduction rates and serum albumin levels in patients on hemodialysis. ASAIO J 41:M801-M804, 1995

8. Lowrie EG, Lew NL: Death risk in hemodialysis patients: The predictive value of commonly measured variables and an evaluation of death rate differences between facilities. Am J Kidney Dis 15:458-482, 1990

9. Hakim RM, Lazarus JM: Initiation of dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 6:1319-1328, 1995

10. Ratcliffe PJ, Phillips RE, Oliver DE: Late referral for maintenance dialysis. BMJ 288:441-443, 1984

11. Hood SA, Schillo B, Beane EG, Rozas V, Sondheimer JH, Members of The Michigan Renal Plan Task Force of the Michigan Public Health Institute, Okemos, MI: An analysis of the adequacy of preparation for end-stage renal disease care in Michigan. ASAIO J 41:M422-M426, 1995

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16. Churchill DN, Taylor DW, Keshaviah PR: Adequacy of dialysis and nutrition in continuous peritoneal dialysis: Association with clinical outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:198-207, 1996

17. Rodby RA, Firanek CA, Cheng YG, Korbet SM: Reproducibility of studies of peritoneal dialysis adequacy. Kidney Int 50:267-271, 1996

18. Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD, Khanna R, Prowant BF, Ryan LP, Moore HL, Nielsen MP: Peritoneal equilibration tests. Perit Dial Bull 7:138-147, 1987

19. Warady BA, Hossli S: Peritoneal membrane transport function in children receiving long-term dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:2385-2391, 1996

20. Rocco MV, Jordan JR, Burkart JM: Changes in peritoneal transport during the first month of peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 15:12-17, 1995

21. Hiroshige K, Yuu K, Soejima M, Takasugi M, Kuroiwa A: Rapid decline of residual renal function in patients on automated peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 16:307-315, 1996

22. Warady B: Longitudinal evaluation of transport kinetics in children receiving peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 13:571-576, 1999 - Full Text

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24. Keen M, Lipps B, Gotch F: The measured creatinine generation rate in CAPD suggests only 78% of prescribed dialysis is delivered. Adv Perit Dial 9:73-75, 1993

25. Goel SP, Nolph KD, Moore HL, Prowant BF, Khanna R, Twardowski ZJ: A prospective study of the effect of noncompliance on small solute removal in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. ASAIO J 41:M452-M456, 1995

26. Gregory M, Holley JL: Assessing compliance with the dialysis prescription in children on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 16:S69, 1996 (abstr)

27. Johansson A-C, Attman P, Haraldsson B: Creatinine generation rate and lean body mass: A critical analysis in peritoneal dialysis patients. Kidney Int 51:855-859, 1997

28. Mitch WE, Walser M: A proposed mechanism for reduced creatinine excretion in severe chronic renal failure. Nephron 21:248-254, 1978

29. Cockroft DW, Gault MH: Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron 16:31-41, 1976

30. Warren PJ, Brandes JC: Compliances with the peritoneal dialysis prescription is poor. J Am Soc Nephrol 4:1627-1629, 1994 - No Abstract Available

31. Nolph KD, Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R, Moore HL, Prowant BF: Predicted and measured daily creatinine production in CAPD: Identifying noncompliance. Perit Dial Int 15:22-25, 1995

32. Tzamaloukas AH, Braun M, Malhotra D, Murata GH: Estimated versus predicted creatinine generation as an indicator of compliance with the prescribed dose of continuous peritoneal dialysis. Int J Artif Organs 19:151-155, 1996

33. Blake PG, Spanner E, McMurray S, Lindsay RM, Ferguson E: Comparison of measured and predicted creatinine excretion is an unreliable index of compliance in PD patients. Perit Dial Int 16:147-153, 1996

34. Tzamaloukas AH: Can an excess of estimated over-predicted creatinine generation be a discriminating test for non-compliance in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis? J Am Soc Nephrol 6:1519-1520, 1995 (letter)

35. Burkart JM, Bleyer AJ, Jordan JR, Zeigler NC: An elevated ratio of measured to predicted creatinine production in CAPD patients is not a sensitive predictor of noncompliance with the dialysis prescription. Perit Dial Int 16:142-146, 1996

36. Tzamaloukas AH: Pharmokinetic analysis of creatinine generation discrepancy as an index of noncompliance in CAPD. Adv Perit Dial 12:61-65, 1996

37. Lo W-K, Prowant BF, Gamboa SB, Moore HL, Nolph KD: How reproducible is daily creatinine recovery in chronic peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 14:286-288, 1994 - No Abstract Availalbe

38. Watson PE, Watson ID, Batt RD: Total body water volumes for adult males and females estimated from simple anthropometric measurements. Am J Clin Nutr 33:27-39, 1980

39. Hume R, Weyers E: Relationship between total body water and surface area in normal and obese subjects. J Clin Pathol 24:234-238, 1971 - No Abstract Available

40. Mellits ED, Cheek DB: The assessment of body water and fatness from infancy to adulthood. Monographs Soc Res Child Dev, Serial 140 35:12-26, 1970

41. Du Bois D, Du Bois EF: A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. Arch Intern Med 17:863-971, 1916

42. Gehan E, George SL: Estimation of human body surface area from height and weight. Cancer Chemother Rep 54:225-235, 1970 (part I)

43. Haycock GB, Chir B, Schwartz GJ, Wisotsky DH: Geometric method for measuring body surface area: A height-weight formula validated in infants, children, and adults. J Pediatr 93:62-66, 1978

44. Bailey BJR, Briars G: Estimating the surface area of the human body. Stat Med 15:1325-1332, 1996

45. Tzamaloukas AH, Saddler MS, Murphy G, Morgan K, Goldman RS, Murata GH, Malhotra D: Volume of distribution and fractional clearance of urea in amputees on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 14:356-361, 1994

46. Tzamaloukas AH, Malhotra D: Creatinine clearance in amputees on CPD. Perit Dial Int 16:426-426, 1996 - No Abstract Available

47. Tzamaloukas AH, Murata GH, Malhotra D, Fox L, Goldman RS: An analysis of the determinants of urinary urea and creatinine clearance in patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 13:38-41, 1997

48. Lameire NH, Vanholder R, Veyt D, Lambert M, Ringoir S: A longitudinal, five year survey of urea kinetic parameters in CAPD patients. Kidney Int 42:426-432, 1992

49. CANUSA Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group. Canada-USA (CANUSA) multicentre study of peritoneal dialysis adequacy: Description of the study population and preliminary results. Adv Perit Dial 8:88-92, 1992

50. Teehan BP, Schleifer CR, Brown J: Adequacy of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: Morbidity and mortality in chronic peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 24:990-1001, 1994

51. Nolph KD, Moore HL, Prowant B, Meyer M, Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R, Ponferrada L, Keshaviah P: Cross sectional assessment of weekly urea and creatinine clearances and indices of nutrition in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 13:178-183, 1993

52. Lutes R, Holley JL, Perlmutter J, Piraino B: Correlation of normalized protein catabolic rate to weekly creatinine clearance and KT/V in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 9:97-100, 1993

53. Bergstrom J, Furst P, Alverstrand A, Lindholm B: Protein and energy intake, nitrogen balance and nitrogen losses in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 44:1048-1057, 1993

54. Murata GH, Tzamaloukas AH, Malhotra D, Saddler MC, Fox L, Wood B, Morgan K, Goldman RS: Protein catabolic rate in patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis: A multivariate predictive model. ASAIO J 42:46-51, 1996

55. Harty J, Faragher B, Venning M, Gokal R: Urea kinetic modelling exaggerates the relationship between nutrition and dialysis in CAPD patients. (The hazards of cross-sectional analysis). Perit Dial Int 15:105-109, 1995 - No Abstract Available

56. Malhotra D, Tzamaloukas AH, Murata GH, Fox L, Goldman RS, Avasthi PS: Serum albumin in continuous peritoneal dialysis: Its predictors and relationship to urea clearance. Kidney Int 50:1501-1507, 1996

57. Lindsay RM, Spanner E: A hypothesis: The protein catabolic rate is dependent upon the type and amount of treatment in dialyzed uremic patients. Am J Kidney Dis 13:382-389, 1989

58. Lindsay RM, Spanner E, Heidenheim RP, LeFebvre JM, Hodsman A, Baird J, Allison MEM: Which comes first, Kt/V or PCR-chicken or egg? Kidney Int Suppl 42:S32-S36, 1992

58a. Kopple JD, Jones MR, Keshaviah PR, Bergstrom J, Lindsay RM, Moran J, Nolph KD, Teehan BP: A proposed glossary for dialysis kinetics. Am J Kidney Dis 26:963-981, 1995

59. Bergstrom J, Heimberger O, Lindholm B: Calculation of protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance from urea appearance: Which formulas should be used? Perit Dial Int 18:467-473, 1998 - No Abstract Available

60. Keshaviah PR, Nolph KD, Moore HL, Prowant B, Emerson PF, Meyer M, Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R, Ponferrada L, Collins A: Lean body mass estimation by creatinine kinetics. J Am Soc Nephrol 4:1475-1485, 1994

61. Forbes GB, Bruning GJ: Urinary creatinine excretion and lean body mass. Am J Clin Nutr 29:1359-1366, 1976

62. Bhatla B, Moore H, Emerson P, Keshaviah P, Prowant B, Nolph KD, Singh A: Lean body mass estimation by creatinine kinetics, bioimpedance, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. ASAIO J 41:M442-M446, 1995

63. Tzamaloukas AH, Murata GH, Malhotra D, Fox L, Goldman RS, Avasthi PS: Creatinine clearance in continuous peritoneal dialysis: Dialysis dose required for a minimal acceptable level. Perit Dial Int 16:41-47, 1996

64. Tzamaloukas AH, Murata GH, Malhotra D, Fox L, Goldman RS, Avasthi PS: The minimal dose of dialysis required for a target KT/V in continuous peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 44:316-321, 1995

65. Kopple JD, Jones MR, Keshaviah PR, Bergstrom J, Lindsay RM, Moran J, Nolph KD, Teehan BP: A proposed glossary for dialysis kinetics. Am J Kidney Dis 26:963-981, 1995

66. Borah MF, Schoenfeld PY, Gotch FA, Sargent JA, Wolfson M, Humphreys MH: Nitrogen balance during intermittent dialysis therapy of uremia. Kidney Int 14:491-500, 1978

67. Keshaviah PR, Nolph KD: Protein catabolic rate calculations in CAPD patients. ASAIO Trans 37:M400-M402, 1991

68. Mendley SR, Majkowski NL: Protein intake and urea and nitrogen appearance in stable pediatric PD patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:1432-1432, 1996 (abstr)

69. Churchill D, Thorpe K, Nolph K, Keshaviah P, Oreopoulos P, Page D: Increased peritoneal membrane transport is associated with decreased patient and technique survival for continuous peritoneal dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 9:1285-1292, 1998

69a. Schaefer F, Klaus G, Mehls O, The Mid-European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group: Peritoneal transplant properties and dialysis dose affect growth and nutritional status in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 10:1786-1792, 1999

69b. Edefonti A, Picca M, Damiani B, Loi S, Ghio L, Giani M, Consalvo G, Grassi MR: Dietary prescription based on estimated nitrogen balance during peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 13:253-258, 1999

70. Gotch FA: Kinetic modeling in hemodialysis, in Nissenson AR, Fine RN, Gentile DE (eds): Clinical Dialysis. (ed 3). East Norwalk, CT, Appleton & Lange, 1995, pp 156-189

71. Gotch FA, Keen M: Kinetic modeling in peritoneal dialysis, in Nissenson AR, Fine RN, Gentile DE (eds): Clinical Dialysis (ed 3). Norwalk, CT, Appleton and Lange, 1995, pp 343-375

72. Kohaut EC, Waldo FB, Benfield MR: The effect of changes in dialysate volume on glucose and urea equilibration. Perit Dial Int 14:236-239, 1994

73. Robertson BC, Juhasz NM, Walker PJ, Raymond KH, Taber TE, Adcock AA: A prescription model for peritoneal dialysis. ASAIO J 41:116-126, 1995

74. Gotch FA, Lipps BJ, Keen ML, Panlilio F, Coinvestigators for the Fresenius Randomised Dialysis Prescriptions and Clinical Outcome Study (RDP/CO): Computerized urea kinetic modeling (UKM) to prescribe and monitor delivered Kt/V (pKt/V, dkT/V) in peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 12:43-45, 1996

75. Vonesh EF, Burkart J, McMurray SD, Williams PF: Peritoneal dialysis in kinetic modeling: Validation in a multicenter clinical study. Perit Dial Int 16:471-481, 1996

76. Vonesh EF, Story KO, O’Neill WT: A multinational clinical validation study of PD Adequest 2.0. Perit Dial Int 19:556-571, 1999

77. Schaefer F, Haraldsson B, Haas S, Simkova E, Feber J, Mehls O: Estimation of peritoneal mass transport by three-pore model in children. Kidney Int 54:1372-1379, 1998

78. Verrina E, Amici G, Trivelli A, Canepa A, Gusmano R: The use of the PD adequest mathmatical model in pediatric patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 18:322-328, 1998

79. Maiorca R, Brunori G, Zubani R, Cancarini GC, Manili L, Camerini C, Movilli E, Pola A, d’Avolio G, Gelatti U: Predictive value of dialysis adequacy and nutritional indices for mortality and morbidity in CAPD and HD patients. A longitudinal study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 10:2295-2305, 1995

80. Teehan BP, Schleifer CR, Brown J: Urea kinetic modeling is an appropriate assessment of adequacy. Semin Dial 5:189-192, 1992

81. Depner TA: Single-Compartment Model. in Prescribing Hemodialysis: A Guide to Urea Modeling. Norwell, MA, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991, pp 81-88

82. Twardowski ZJ: Clinical value of standardized equilibration tests in CAPD patients. Blood Purif 7:95-108, 1989

83. Keshaviah P, Emerson PF, Vonesh EF, Brandes JC: Relationship between body size, fill volume, and mass transfer area coefficient in peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 4:1820-1826, 1994

84. Schoenfeld PY, Diaz-Buxo J, Keen M, Gotch FA: The effect of body position (P), surface area (BSA), fill volume and intraperitoneal exchange volume (Vip) on the peritoneal transport constant. J Am Soc Nephrol 4:416A, 1993 (abstr)

85. Blake PG, Abraham G, Sombolos K, Izatt S, Weissgarten J, Ayiomamitis A, Oreopoulos DG: Changes in peritoneal membrane transport rates in patients on long term CAPD. Adv Perit Dial 5:3-7, 1989

86. Vonesh EF, Lysaght MJ, Moran J, Farrell P: Kinetic modeling as a prescription aid in peritoneal dialysis. Blood Purif 9:246-270, 1991

87. Smith L, Folden T, Youngblood B, Panlilio F, Gotch F: Clinical evaluation of a peritoneal dialysis kinetic modeling set. Adv Perit Dial 12:46-48, 1996

88. Randerson D, Farrell P: Mass transfer properties of the human peritoneum. ASAIO J 6:140-146, 1983

89. Garred LJ, Canaud B, Farrell PC: A simple kinetic model for assesssing peritoneal mass transfer in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. ASAIO J 6:131-137, 1983

90. Owen WF Jr, Lew NL, Yan Liu MS, Lowrie EG, Lazarus JM: The urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration as predictors of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 329:1001-1006, 1993

91. Gotch FA, Gentile DE, Keen M: The incident of patient cohort study design with uncontrolled dose may result in a substantial overestimation of mortality (M) as a function of peritoneal dialysis (PD) dose. ASAIO Trans 42:102, 1996

92. Kimmel PL, Bosch JP: Effectiveness of renal fellowship training for subsequent clinical practice. Am J Kidney Dis 18:249-256, 1991

93. Burkart J, Schreiber M, Tabor T, Korbet S, Stallard R, PD Collaborative Group: Prospective, multicenter evaluation of patient transfer from PD to HD in 1995. Perit Dial Int 16:S66, 1996 (abstr)

94. Bloembergen WE, Stannard DC, Port F, Wolfe RA, Pugh JA, Jones CA, Greer JW, Golper TA, Held PJ: Relationship of dose of hemodialysis and cause-specific mortality. Kidney Int 50:557-565, 1996

95. Davies SJ, Bryan J, Phillips L, Russell GI: The predictive value of KT/V and peritoneal solute transport in CAPD patients is dependent on the type of comorbidity present. Perit Dial Int 16:S158-S162, 1996

96. Young GA, Young JB, Hobson SM, Hildreth B, Brownjohn AM, Parsons FM: Nutrition and delayed hypersensitivity during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in relation to peritonitis. Nephron 43:177-186, 1986

97. Tattersall JE, Doyle S, Greenwood RN, Farrington K: Maintaining adequacy in CAPD by individualizing the dialysis prescription. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9:749-752, 1994

98. Genestier S, Hedelin G, Schaffer P, Faller B: Prognostic factors in CAPD patients: A retrospective study of a 10-year period. Nephrol Dial Transplant 10:1905-1911, 1995

99. US Renal Data Systems: 1991 Annual Data Report, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, 1991, pp E57-E61

100. US Renal Data Systems: Hospitalization, in National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (ed): US Renal Data Systems 1996 Annual Data Report, Bethesda, MD, 1996, p 111

101. Cagney KA, Wu AW, Herbert RJ, Meyer KB, Jenckes MW, Bass EB, Powe NR: Formal assessment of quality of life instruments for end-stage renal disease. Med Decision Making 15:421-421 1995

102. Meyer KB, Espindle DM, DeGiacomo JM, Jenulson CS, Kurtin PS, Davies AR: Monitoring dialysis patients’ health status. Am J Kidney Dis 24:267-279, 1994

103. Wu AW, Cagney KA, Fink NE, Meyer KB, Herbert RJ, Jenckes MW, Sadler JH, Powe NR: Development of a quality life measure for renal dialysis patients. Quality Life Res 4:505-505. 1995

104. Powe NR, Klag MJ, Sadler JH, Anderson GF, Bass EB, Briggs WA, Fink NE, Levey AS, Levin NW, Meyer KB, Rubin HR, Wu AW: Choices for healthy outcomes in caring for end-stage renal disease. Semin Dial 9:9-11, 1996

105. Hays RD, Kallichj JD, Mapes DL, Coons SJ, Carter WB: Development of the kidney disease quality of life (KDQUOL) instrument. Quality Life Res 3:329-338, 1994

106. Avram MM, Goldwasser P, Erroa M, Fein PA: Predictors of survival in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: The importance of prealbumin and other nutritional and metabolic markers. Am J Kidney Dis 23:91-98, 1994

107. Struijk DG, Krediet RT, Koomen GCM, Boeschoten EW, Arisz L: The effect of serum albumin at the start of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treatment on patient survival. Perit Dial Int 14:121-126, 1994

108. Brandes JC, Piering WF, Beres JA, Blumenthal SS, Fritsche C: Clinical outcome of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis predicted by urea and creatinine kinetics. J Am Soc Nephrol 2:1430-1435, 1992

109. Heaf J: CAPD adequacy and dialysis morbidity: Detrimental effect of a high peritoneal equilibration rate. Ren Fail 17:575-587, 1995

110. Blake PG, Flowerdew G, Blake RM, Oreopoulos DG: Serum albumin in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: Predictors and correlations with outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:1501-1507, 1993 - Full Text

111. Blumenkrantz MJ, Kopple JD, Moran JK, Grodstein GP, Coburn JW: Nitrogen and urea metabolism during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 20:78-82, 1981

112. Ronco C, Bosch JP, Lew SQ, Feriani M, Chiaramonte S, Conz P, Brendolan A, La Greca G: Adequacy of continuous ambulatory peritoneal analysis: Comparison with other dialysis techniques. Kidney Int Suppl 46:S18-S24, 1994 - No Abstract Available

113. Mactier RA, Perry M, Henderson IS: Relationships between dialysis quantification and normalized protein catabolic rate in peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 13:S508-S511, 1993

114. Blake PG, Sombolos K, Abraham G, Weissgarten J, Pemberton R, Chu GL, Oreopoulos DG: Lack of correlation between urea kinetic indices and clinical outcomes in CAPD patients. Kidney Int 39:700-706, 1991

115. Stein A, Walls J: The correlation between Kt/V and protein catabolic rate–A self-fulfilling prophecy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9:743-745, 1994 - No Abstract Available

116. Harty J, Boulton H, Heelis N, Uttley L, Venning M, Gokal R: Limitations of kinetic models as predictors of nutritional and dialysis adequacy in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Nephrol 13:454-463, 1993

117. Salusky IB: Nutritional management of pediatric patients on chronic dialysis, in Nissenson AR, Fine RN, Gentile DE (eds): Clinical Dialysis (ed 3). Norwalk, CT, Appleton and Lange, 1995, pp 535-548

118. Salusky IB, Fine RN, Nelson P, Blumenkrantz MJ, Kopple JD: Nutritional status of children undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Clin Nutr 38:599-611, 1983

119. Maiorca R, Cancarini GC, Brunori G, Camerini C, Manili L: Morbidity and mortality of CAPD and hemodialysis. Kidney Int 43:S4-S15, 1993

120. Zawada ET Jr: Indications for dialysis, in Daugirdas JT, Ing TS (eds): Handbook of Dialysis (ed 2). Toronto, Canada, Little, Brown and Co, 1994, pp 6-7

121. Khanna R, Nolph KD, Oreopoulos DG: Peritoneal dialysis in diabetics, in The Essentials of Peritoneal Dialysis. Boston, MA, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993, pp 99-100

122. Pritchard SS: Treatment modality selection in 150 consecutive patients starting ESRD therapy. Perit Dial Int 16:69-72, 1996

123. Charytan C, Spinowitz BS: Dialysate Leaks, in Nissenson AR, Fine RN (eds): Dialysis Therapy (2 ed). Philadelphia, PA, Hanley and Belfus, 1993, pp 188-189

124. Mactier R: Non-renal indications for peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 8:141-144, 1992

125. Robson MD, Biro A, Knobel B, Schai C, Mordchia R: Peritoneal dialysis in refractory congestive heart failure. Part II. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Perit Dial Bull 3:133-134, 1983

126. Kim D, Khanna R, Wu G, Fountas P, Druck M, Oreopoulos DG: Successful use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in refractory heart failure. Perit Dial Bull 5:127-130, 1985

127. McKinnie JJ, Bourgeois RJ, Husserl FE: Long-term therapy for heart failure with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Arch Intern Med 145:1128-1129, 1985

128. Rubin J, Ball R: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis as a treatment of severe congestive heart failure in the face of chronic renal failure. Report of eight cases. Arch Intern Med 146:1533-1535, 1986

129. Konig PS, Lhotta K, Kronenberg F, Ioannidid M, Herold M: CAPD: A successful treatment in patients suffering from therapy-resistant congestive heart failure. Adv Perit Dial 7:97-101, 1991

130. Stegmayr B, Banga R, Lundberg L, Wikdahl AM, Plum-Wirell M: PD treatment for severe congestive heart failure. Perit Dial Int 16:S231-S235, 1996

131. Tzamaloukas AH, Murata GH, Harford AM, Sena P, Zager PG, Eisenberg B, Wood B, Simon D, Goldman RS, Kanig SP: Hand gangrene in diabetics on chronic dialysis. ASAIO Trans 37:638-643, 1991

132. Coles GA: When should chronic peritoneal dialysis be recommended over hemodialysis? Semin Dial 2:213-214, 1989

133. Zappacosta AR, Perras ST: The process of prescribing CAPD, in CAPD: Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis. Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott, 1984, pp 4-23

134. Korbet SM, Rodby RA: Peritoneal membrane failure: Differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. Semin Dial 7:128-137, 1994

135. Gulanikar AC, Jindal KK, Hirsch DJ: Is chronic peritoneal dialysis safe in patients with intrabdominal prosthetic vascular graphs? Nephrol Dial Transplant 6:215-217, 1991 - No Abstract Available

136. Charytan C: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis after abdominal aortic graft surgery. Perit Dial Int 12:227-229, 1992 - No Abstract Available

137. Schmidt RJ, Cruz C, Dumler F: Effective continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Perit Dial Int 13:40-44, 1994

138. Nolph KD, Jensen RA, Khanna R, Twardowski ZJ: Weight limitations for weekly urea clearances using various exchange volumes in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 14:261-264, 1994

139. Tzamaloukas AH, Dimitriadis A, Murata GH, Nicolopoulou N, Malhotra D, Balaskas EV, Kakavas J, Antoniou S, Dombros NV, Batzili E, Voudiklari S: Continuous peritoneal dialysis in heavyweight individuals: urea and creatinine clearances. Perit Dial Int 16:302-306, 1996

140. Beardsworth SF: The complications of peritoneal dialysis, in Practical Peritoneal Dialysis. Bristol, England, John Wright & Sons, 1984, pp 63-69

141. Holley JL, Piraino B: Careful patient selection and dialysis prescription are required for effective nightly intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 14:155-158, 1994

142. Tzamaloukas AH, Saddler MC, Murata GH, Malhotra D, Sena P, Simon D, Hawkins KL, Morgan K, Nevarez M, Wood , Ellege L, Gibel LJ: Symptomatic fluid retention in patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 6:198-206, 1995

143. Mactier RA: Investigation and management of ultrafiltration failure in CAPD. Adv Perit Dial 7:57-62, 1991

 

 

 

 


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