KDOQI Update 2000


VII. References

1. Deleted in proof.

2. Deleted in proof.

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5. Kaufman JL: The decline of the autogenous hemodialysis access site. Semin Dial 8:59-61, 1995

6. US Renal Data System: X. The cost effectiveness of alternative types of vascular access and the economic cost of ESRD. Am J Kidney Dis 26:S140-S156, 1995 (suppl)

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9. Besarab A, Sullivan KL, Ross RP, Moritz MJ: Utility of intra-access pressure monitoring in detecting and correcting venous outlet stenoses prior to thrombosis. Kidney Int 47:1364-1373, 1995

10. Feldman HI, Held PJ, Hutchinson JT, Stoiber E, Hartigan MF, Berlin JA: Hemodialysis vascular access morbidity in the United States. Kidney Int 43:1091-1096, 1993

11. Carlson DM, Duncan DA, Naessens JM, Johnson WJ: Hospitalization in dialysis patients. Mayo Clin Proc 59:769-775, 1984

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17. Trerotola SO: Interventional radiology in central venous stenosis and occlusion. Semin Intervent Radiol 11:291-304, 1994

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21. Newman GE, Saeed M, Himmelstein S, Cohan RH, Schwab SJ: Total central vein obstruction: Resolution with angioplasty and fibrinolysis. Kidney Int 39:761-764, 1991 - No Abstract Available

22. Bander SJ, Schwab SJ: Central venous angioaccess for hemodialysis and its complications. Semin Dial 5:121-128, 1992

23. Bolz K, Fjermeros G, Wideroe T, Hatlinghus S: Catheter malfunction and thrombus formation on double-lumen hemodialysis catheters: An intravascular ultrasonographic study. Am J Kidney Dis 25:597-602, 1995

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26. Barrett N, Spencer S, McIvor J, Brown EA: Subclavian stenosis: A major complication of subclavian dialysis catheters. Nephrol Dial Transplant 3:423-425, 1988

27. Stone WJ, Wall MN, Powers TA: Massive upper extremity edema with arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis. A complication of previous pacemaker insertion. Nephron 31:184-186, 1982

28. Korzets A, Chagnac A, Ori Y, Katz M, Zevin D: Subclavian vein stenosis, permanent cardiac pacemakers and the haemodialysed patient. Nephron 58:103-105, 1991

29. Sands J, Young S, Miranda C: The effect of Doppler flow screening studies and elective revisions on dialysis access failure. ASAIO J 38:M524-M527, 1992

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31. Tordoir JHM, De Bruin HG, Hoeneveld H, Eikelboom BC, Kitslaar PJEHM: Duplex ultrasound scanning in the assessment of arteriovenous fistulas created for hemodialysis access: Comparison with digital subtraction angiography. J Vasc Surg 10:122-128, 1989

32. Nonnast-Daniel B, Martin RP, Lindert O, Mugge A, Schaeffer J, v.d. Lieth H, Sochtig E, Galanski M, Koch KM, Daniel WG: Colour doppler ultrasound assessment of arteriovenous haemodialysis fistulas. Lancet 339:143-145, 1992

33. Middleton WD, Picus DD, Marx MV, Melson GL: Color doppler sonography of hemodialysis vascular access: Comparison with angiography. Am J Roentgenol 152:633-639, 1989

34. Scheible W, Skram C, Leopold GR: High resolution real-time sonongraphy of hemodialysis vascular access complications. Am J Roentgenol 134:1173-1176, 1980

35. Sands J: Optimizing hemodialysis access: A teaching tool. Nephrol News Issues 16-22, 1996

36. Fan P-Y, Schwab SJ: Vascular access–Concepts for the 1990s. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:1-11, 1992

37. Windus DW: Permanent vascular access: A nephrologist’s view. Am J Kidney Dis 21:457-471, 1993

38. Munda R, First R, Alexander JW, Linnemann CC, Fidler JP, Kittur D: Polytetrafluoroethylene graft survival in hemodialysis. JAMA 249:219-222, 1983

39. Kinnaert P, Vereerstraeten P, Toussaint C, Van Geertruyden J: Nine years’ experience with internal arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis: Study of some factors influencing results. Br J Surg 64:242-246, 1977

40. Kherlakian GM, Roedersheimer LR, Arbaugh JJ, Newmark KJ, King LR: Comparison of autogenous fistula versus expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft fistula for angioaccess in hemodialysis. Am J Surg 152:238-243, 1986

41. Dunlop MG, Mackinlay JY, Jenkins AM: Vascular access: Experience with the brachiocephalic fistula. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 68:203-206, 1986

42. Ryan JJ, Dennis MJS: Radiocephalic fistula in vascular access. Br J Surg 77:1321-1322, 1990 - No Abstract Available

43. Albers F: Causes of hemodialysis access failure. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:107-118, 1994

44. Nghiem DD: Angioaccess by reverse brachiocephalic fistula. Am J Surg 153:574-575, 1987

45. Stonebridge PA, Edington D, Jenkins AM: ’Brachial/basilic vein’ transposition for vascular access. J R Coll Surg Edinb 40:219-220, 1995

46. Cantelmo NL, Logerfo FW, Menzoian JO: Brachiobasilic and brachiocephalic fistulas as secondary angioaccess routes. Surg Gynecol Obstet 155:545-548, 1982 - No Abstract Available

47. Nazzal MMS, Neglen P, Naseem J, Christenson JT, Al-Hassan HK: The brachiocephalic fistula: A successful secondary vascular access procedure. Vasa 19:326-329, 1990

48. Didlake R, Curry E, Bower J: Composite dialysis access grafts. J Am Coll Surg 178:24-28, 1994

49. Humphries AL Jr, Nesbit RR Jr, Caruna RJ, Hutchins RS, Heimburger RA, Wray CH: Thirty-six recommendations for vascular access operations: Lessons learned from our first thousand operations. Am Surg 47:145-151, 1981 - No Abstract Availalbe

50. Owens ML, Stabile BE, Gahr JA, Wilson SE: Vascular grafts for hemodialysis: Evaluation of sites and materials. Dial Transplant 8:521,530, 1979

51. Anderson CB, Sicard GA, Etheredge EE: Bovine carotid artery and expanded polytetrafluroethylene grafts for hemodialysis vascular access. J Surg Res 29:184-188, 1980 - No Abstract Available

52. Butler HG III, Baker LD Jr, Johnson JM: Vascular access for chronic hemodialysis: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) versus bovine heterograft. Am J Surg 134:791-793, 1977

53. Rizzuti RP, Hale JC, Burkart TE: Extended patency of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for vascular access using optimal configuration and revisions. Surg Gynecol Obstet 166:23-27, 1988

54. Johansen K, Lyman D, Sauvage L: Biomaterials for hemodialysis access. Blood Purif 12:73-77, 1994

55. Dienst SG, Oh HK, Levin NW, Kallioinen S: A comparison of dialysis access grafts. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 29:353-356, 1983 - No Abstract Available

56. Gross GF, Hayes JF: PFTE graft arteriovenous fistulae for hemodialysis access. Am Surg 45:748-749, 1979

57. Jenkins AM, Buist TAS, Glover SD: Medium-term follow-up of forty autogenous vein and forty polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) grafts for vascular access. Surgery 88:667-672, 1980

58. Lilly L, Nighiem D, Mendez-Picon G, Lee HM: Comparison between bovine heterograft and expanded PTFE grafts for dialysis access. Am Surg 694-696, 1980

59. Bone GE, Pomajzl MJ: Prospective comparison of polytetrafluoroethylene and bovine grafts for dialysis. J Surg Res 29:223-227, 1980 - No Abstract Available

60. Sabanayagam P, Schwartz AB, Soricelli RR, Lyons P, Chinitz J: A comparative study of 402 bovine heterografts and 225 reinforced expanded PTFE grafts as AVF in the ESRD patient. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 26:88-92, 1980 - No Abstract Available

61. Kaplan MS, Mirahmadi KS, Winer RL, Gorman JT, Dabirvaziri N, Rosen SM: Comparison of "PTFE" and bovine grafts for blood access in dialysis patients. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 22:388-393, 1976 - No Abstract Available

62. May J, Harris J, Patrick W: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts for haemodialysis: Patency and complications compared with those of saphenous vein grafts. Aust N Z J Surg 49:639-642, 1979

63. Tellis VA, Kohlberg WI, Bhat DJ, Driscoll B, Veith FJ: Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft fistula for chronic hemodialysis. Ann Surg 189:101-105, 1979

64. Elliott MP, Gazzaniga AB, Thomas JM, Haiduc NJ, Rosen SM: Use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for vascular access in hemodialysis: Laboratory and clinical evaluation. Am Surg 43:455-459, 1977

65. Rubio PA, Farrell EM: Human umbilical vein graft angioaccess in chronic hemodialysis: A preliminary report. Dial Transplant 8:211-212, 1979

66. Etheredge EE, Haid SD, Maeser MN, Sicard GA, Anderson CB: Salvage operations for malfunctioning polytetrafluoroethylene hemodialysis access grafts. Surgery 94:464-470, 1983

67. Rubio PA, Farrell EM: Modified human umbilical vein arteriovenous fistula for maintenance hemodialysis: A 3-1/2 year experience. Arch Surg 117:943-945, 1982 - No Abstract Available

68. Beathard GA: Gianturco self-expanding stent in the treatment of stenosis in dialysis access grafts. Kidney Int 43:872-877, 1993

69. Fan PY: Acute vascular access: New advances. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:90-98, 1994

70. Schwab SJ, Buller GL, McCann RL, Bollinger RR, Stickel DL: Prospective evaluation of a dacron cuffed hemodialysis catheter for prolonged use. Am J Kidney Dis 11:166-169, 1988

71. Shusterman NH, Kloss K, Mullen JL: Successful use of double-lumen, silicone rubber catheters for permanent hemodialysis access. Kidney Int 35:887-890, 1989 - No Abstract Available

72. Moss AH, Mclaughlin MM, Lempert KD, Holley JL: Use of a silicone catheter with a Dacron cuff for dialysis short-term vascular access. Am J Kidney Dis 12:492-498, 1988

73. Moss AH, Vasilakis C, Holley JL, Foulks CJ, Pillai K, McDowell DE: Use of a silicone dual-lumen catheter with a Dacron cuff as a long-term vascular access for hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 16:211-215, 1990

74. Canaud B, Beraud JJ, Joyeux H, Mion C: Internal jugular vein cannulation with two silicone rubber catheters: A new and safe temporary vascular access for hemodialysis. Thirty months’ experience. Artif Organs 10:397-403, 1986

75. Canaud B, Beraud JJ, Joyeux H, Mion C: Internal jugular vein cannulation using 2 silastic catheters: A new simple and safe long-term vascular access for extracorporeal treatment. Nephron 43:133-138, 1986

76. Uldall R, Debruyne M, Besley M, Mcmillan J, Simons M, Francoeur R: A new vascular access catheter for hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 21:270-277, 1993

77. Millner MR, Kerns SR, Hawkins IF Jr, Sabatelli FW, Ross EA: Tesio twin dialysis catheter system: a new catheter for hemodialysis. Am J Roentgenol 164:1519-1520, 1995

78. Suchoki P, Conlon P, Knelson M, Harland RC, Schwab SJ: Silastic cuffed catheters for hemodialysis vascular access: Thrombolytic and mechanical correction of HD catheters malfunction. Am J Kidney Dis 28:379-386, 1996

79. Crain MR, Mewissen MW, Ostrowski GJ, Paz-Fumagalli R, Beres RA, Wertz RA: Fibrin sleeve stripping for salvage of failing hemodialysis catheters: Technique and initial results. Radiology 198:41-44, 1996

80. Shaffer D: Catheter-related sepsis complicating long-term, tunnelled central venous dialysis catheters: Management by guidewire exchange. Am J Kidney Dis 25:593-596, 1995

81. Kovalik EC, Raymond JR, Albers FA, Berkoben M, Montella B, Conlon PJ: A clustering of epidural abscesses in chronic hemodialysis patients: Risks of salvaging access catheters in cases of infection. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:2264-2267, 1996

82. Caruana RJ, Raja RM, Zeit RM, Goldstein SJ, Kramer MS: Thrombotic complications of indwelling central catheters used for chronic hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 9:497-501, 1987

83. Schwab SJ: Assessing the adequacy of vascular access and its relationship to patient outcome. Am J Kidney Dis 24:316-320, 1994

84. Atherikul K, Schwab SJ, Twardowski ZJ, Tesio F, De Baz H, Panarello G, Canaud B, Leray-Moragues H, Garred LJ, Turc-Baron C, Mion, C, Vanholder, R., Lew SQ: What is the role of permanent central vein access in hemodialysis patients? Semin Dial 9:392-403, 1996

85. DeMeester J, Vanholder R, Ringole S: Factors affecting catheter and technique survival in permanent silicone single lumen dialysis catheters. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:361A, 1992 (abstr)

86. Schillinger F, Schillinger D, Montagnac R, Milcent T: Post catheterisation vein stenosis in haemodialysis: Comparative angiographic study of 50 subclavian and 50 internal jugular accesses. Nephrol Dial Transplant 6:722-724, 1991

87. Cimochowski GE, Worley E, Rutherford WE, Sartain J, Blondin J, Harter H: Superiority of the internal jugular over the subclavian access for temporary hemodialysis. Nephron 54:154-161, 1990

88. Lund GB, Trerotola SO, Scheel PJ Jr: Percutaneous translumbar inferior vena cava cannulation for hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 25:732-737, 1995

89. Lameris JS, Post PJM, Zonderland HM, Gerritsen PG, Kappers-Klunne MC, Schutte HE: Percutaneous placement of Hickman catheters: comparison of sonographically guided and blind techniques. Am J Roentgenol 155:1097-1099, 1990

90. Mallory DL, McGee WT, Shawker TH, Brenner M, Bailey KR, Ecans RG, Parker MM, Farmer JC, Parillo JE: Ultrasound guidance improves the success rate of internal jugular vein cannulation. Chest 98:157-160, 1990

91. Dahlberg PJ, Yutuc WR, Newcomer KL: Subclavian hemodialysis catheter infections. Am J Kidney Dis 7:421-427, 1986

92. Kelber J, Delmez JA, Windus DW: Factors affecting delivery of high-efficiency dialysis using temporary vascular access. Am J Kidney Dis 22:24-29, 1993

93. Blake PG, Huraib S, Wu G, Uldall PR: The use of dual lumen jugular venous catheters as definitive long term access for hemodialysis. Int J Artif Organs 13:26-31, 1990

94. Jaques PF, Mauro MA, Keefe B: US guidance for vascular access: Technical note. J Vasc Interv Radiol 3:427-430, 1992

95. Hartle E, Conlon P, Capstens R, Schwab SJ: Ultrasound guided cannulation of the femoral vein for acute hemodialysis access. J Am Soc Nephrol 352A, 1993 (abstr)

96. Troianos CA, Jobes DR, Ellison N: Ultrasound-guided cannulation of the internal jugular vein: A prospective, randomized study. Anesth Analg 72:823-826, 1991 - No Abstract Available

97. Tapson JS, Uldall PR: Fatal hemothorax caused by a subclavian hemodialysis catheter: Thoughts on prevention. Arch Intern Med 144:1685-1687, 1984

98. Tapson JS, Uldall R: Avoiding deaths from subclavian cannulation for hemodialysis. Int J Artif Organs 6:227-230, 1983 - No Abstract Available

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100. Vanherweghem J-L, Cabolet P, Dhaene M, Goldman M, Stolear J-C, Sabot J-P, Waterlot Y, Marchal M: Complications related to subclavian catheters for hemodialysis. Am J Nephrol 6:339-345, 1986

101. Zeien LB, Noguchi TT: Fatal hydrothorax associated with subclavian vein catheterization for hemodialysis. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 13:326-328, 1992

102. Spinowitz BS, Galler M, Golden RA, Rascoff JH, Schechter L, Held B, Charytan C: Subclavian vein stenosis as a complication of subclavian catheterization for hemodialysis. Arch Intern Med 147:305-307, 1987

103. Beathard GA: Percutaneous angioplasty for the treatment of venous stenosis: A nephrologists view. Semin Dial 8:166-170, 1995

104. Polaschegg HD: The extracorporeal circuit. Semin Dial 8:299-304, 1995

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106. Beathard GA: Physical examination of AV grafts. Semin Dial 5:74-74, 1996

107. Beathard GA: The treatment of vascular access graft dysfunction: A nephrologist’s view and experience. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:131-147, 1994

108. Trerotola SO, Scheel PJ, Powe NR, Prescott C, Feeley N, He J, Watson A: Screening for access graft malfunction: comparison of physical examination with US. J Vasc Interv Radiol 7:15-20, 1996

109. Burger H, Zijlstra JJ, Kluchert SA, Scholten AP, Kootstra G: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty improves longevity in fistulae and shunts for hemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 5:608-611, 1990

110. Rodkin RS, Bookstein JJ, Heeney DJ, Davis GB: Streptokinase and transluminal angioplasty in the treatment of acutely thrombosed hemodialysis access fistulas. Radiology 149:425-428, 1983

111. Kanterman RY, Vesely TM, Pilgram TK, Guy BW, Windus DW, Picus D: Dialysis access grafts: anatomic location of venous stenosis and results of angioplasty. Radiology 195:135-139, 1995

112. Glanz S, Gordon DH, Butt KMH, Hong J, Lipkowitz GS: The role of percutaneous angioplasty in the management of chronic hemodialysis fistulas. Ann Surg 206:777-781, 1987

113. Windus DW, Audrain J, Vanderson R, Jendrisak M, Picus D, Delmez JA: Optimization of high-efficiency dialysis by detection and correction of vascular access dysfunction. Kidney Int 38:337-341, 1990

114. Sullivan KL, Besarab A, Bonn J, Shapiro MJ, Gardiner GA Jr, Moritz MJ: Hemodynamics of failing dialysis grafts. Radiology 186:867-872, 1993

115. Besarab A, Ross R, Al-Aljel F, Deane C, Frinak S, Zasuwa G: The relation of brachial artery flow to access flow. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:483A, 1995 (abstr)

116. Schackelton CR, Taylor DC, Buckley AR, Rowley VA, Cooperberg PL, Fry PD: Predicting failure in polytetrafluoroethylene vascular access grafts for hemodialysis: A pilot study. Can J Surg 30:442-444, 1987

117. Strauch BS, O’Connell RS, Geoly KL, Grundlehner M, Yakub YN, Tietjen DP: Forecasting thrombosis of vascular access with Doppler color flow imaging. Am J Kidney Dis 19:554-557, 1992

118. Depner TA, Reasons A: Longevity of peripheral A-V grafts and fistulae for hemodialysis is related to access blood flow. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:1405-1405, 1996

119. Schwab SJ, Raymond JR, Saeed M, Newman GE, Dennis PA, Bollinger RR: Prevention of hemodialysis fistula thrombosis. Early detection of venous stenoses. Kidney Int 36:707-711, 1989

120. Finlay DE, Longley DG, Foshager MC, Letourneau JG: Duplex and color Doppler sonography of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. Radiographics 13:983-989, 1993

121. Krivitsky NM: Theory and validation of access flow measurement by dilution technique during hemodialysis. Kidney Int 48:244-250, 1995

122. Depner TA, Krivitsky NM: Clinical measurement of blood flow in hemodialysis access fistulae and grafts by ultrasound dilution. ASAIO J 41:M745-M749, 1995

123. Oudenhoven LFIJ, Pattynama PMT, De Roos A, Seeverens HJJ, Rebergen SA, Chang PC: Magnetic resonance, a new method for measuring blood flow in hemodialysis fistulae. Kidney Int 45:884-889, 1994

124. Kirschbaum B, Compton A: Study of vascular access blood flow by angiodynography. Am J Kidney Dis 25:22-25, 1995

125. Beathard GA: Percutaneous therapy of vascular access dysfunction: Optimal management of access stenosis and thrombosis. Semin Dial 7:165-167, 1994

126. Safa AA, Valji K, Roberts AC, Ziegler TW, Hye RJ, Oglevie SB: Detection and treatment of dysfunctional hemodialysis access grafts: Effects of a surveillance program on graft patency and the incidence of thrombosis. Radiology 199:653-657, 1996

127. Besarab A, Al-Saghir F, Al-Nabhan N, Lubkowski T, Frinak S: Simplified measurement of intra-access pressure. ASAIO J 42:106-106, 1996

128. Collins DM, Lambert MB, Middleton JP, Proctor RK, Davidson CJ, Newman GE, Schwab SJ: Fistula dysfunction: Effect on rapid hemodialysis. Kidney Int 41:1292-1296, 1992

129. Besarab A, Dorrell S, Moritz M, Michael H, Sullivan K: Determinants of measured dialysis venous pressure and its relationship to true intra-access venous pressure. ASAIO Trans 37:M270-M271, 1991

130. Besarab A, Sherman RA: The relationship of recirculation to access blood type. Am J Kidney Dis 29:223-229, 1997

131. Depner TA, Rizwan S, Cheer AY, Wagner JM, Eder LA: High venous urea concentrations in the opposite arm: A consequence of hemodialysis-induced compartment disequilibrium. ASAIO Trans 37:M141-M143, 1991

132. Van Stone JC: Peripheral venous blood is not the appropriate specimen to determine the amount of recirculation during hemodialysis. ASAIO J 42:41-45, 1996

133. Sherman RA: The measurement of dialysis access recirculation. Am J Kidney Dis 22:616-621, 1993

134. Sherman RA, Kapoian T: Recirculation, urea disequilibrium and dialysis efficiency: Peripheral arteriovenous versus central venovenous vascular access. Am J Kidney Dis 29:479-489, 1997

135. Gani JS, Fowler PR, Steinberg AW, Wlodarczyk JH, Nanra RS, Hibberd AD: Use of the fistula assessment monitor to detect stenoses in access fistulae. Am J Kidney Dis 17:303-306, 1991

136. Tattersall JE, Farrington K, Raniga PD, Thompson H, Tomlinson C, Aldridge C, Greenwood RN: Haemodialysis recirculation detected by the three-sample method is an artefact. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8:60-63, 1995

137. Hester RL, Curry E, Bower J: The determination of hemodialysis blood recirculation using blood urea nitrogen measurements. Am J Kidney Dis 20:598-602, 1992

138. Depner TA, Krivitsky NM, MacGibbon D: Hemodialysis access recirculation measured by ultrasound dilution. ASAIO J 41:M749-M753, 1995

139. Kaplowitz LG, Comstock JA, Landwehr DM, Dalton HP, Mayhall CG: A prospective study of infections in hemodialysis patients: Patient hygiene and other risk factors for infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 9:534-541, 1988

140. Vanherweghem JL, Dhaene M, Goldman M, Stolear JC, Sabot JP, Waterlot Y, Serruys E, Thayse C: Infections associated with subclavian dialysis catheters: The key role of nurse training. Nephron 42:116-119, 1986

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143. Goldblum SE, Ulrich JA, Goldman RS, Reed WP, Avasthi S: Comparison of 4% chlorohexidine gluconate in a detergent base (Hibiclens) and povidine-iodine (Betadine) for the skin preparation of hemodialysis patients and personnel. Am J Kidney Dis 2:548-552, 1983

144. Nicoletti G, Boghossian V, Borland R: Hygenic hand disinfection: A comparative study with chlorhexidine detergents and soap. J Hospital Infect 15:323-337, 1990

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147. Hartigan MF: Vascular access and nephrology nursing practice: Existing views and rationales for change. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1:155-162, 1994

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151. Levin A, Mason AJ, Jindal KK, Fong IW, Goldstein MB: Prevention of hemodialysis subclavian vein catheter infections by topical povidone-iodine. Kidney Int 40:934-938, 1991

152. Hoffman MA, Langer JC, Pearl RH, Filler RM: Electrocardiographic guided placement of central venous catheters. Br J Surg 76:1032-1033, 1989

153. Marr K, Krekland K, Seefon D, Conlon P, Conly R, Schwab SJ: Catheter related bacteremia in hemodialysis patients. Ann Intern Med 1997

154. Kirmani E, Tuazon CU, Murray HW, Parrish AE, Sheagren JN: Staphylococcus aureus carriage rate. Arch Intern Med 138:1657-1659, 1978

155. Boelaert JR: Staphylococcus aureus infection in haemodialysis patients. Mupiroxin as a topical strategy. J Chemother 6:19-27, 1994

156. Yu VL, Goetz A, Wagener M, Smith P, Rihs J, Hanchett J, Zuravleff JJ: Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection in patients on hemodialysis. Efficacy of prophylaxis. N Engl J Med 315:91-96, 1986

157. Mattson WJ: Recognition and treatment of vascular steal secondary to hemodialysis prostheses. Am J Surg 154:198-201, 1987

158. Valji K, Bookstein JJ, Roberts AC, Oglevie SB, Pittman C, Oneill MP: Pulse-spray pharmacomechanical thrombolysis of thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts: Long-term experience and comparison of original and current techniques. Am J Roentgenol 164:1495-1500, 1995

159. Roberts AC, Valji K, Bookstein JJ, Hye RJ: Pulse-spray pharmacomechanical thrombolysis for treatment of thrombosed dialysis access grafts. Am J Surg 166:221-226, 1993

160. Beathard GA: Mechanical versus pharmacomechanical thrombolysis for the treatment of thrombosed dialysis access grafts. Kidney Int 45:1401-1406, 1994

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