Hispanics are at greater risk for kidney disease and kidney failure than White Americans. In fact, Hispanics are 1½ times more likely to have kidney failure compared to other Americans. In 2010, 13% of new kidney failure patients were Hispanic.
Researchers do not fully understand why Hispanics are at a higher risk for kidney disease. However, 10% of Hispanic Americans have diabetes, which is the leading cause of kidney disease. High blood pressure, diet, obesity, and access to healthcare may also play a role.
What is kidney disease?
Healthy kidneys have many important jobs. They remove waste products and extra water from your body, help make red blood cells, help keep your bones healthy and help control blood pressure. When you have kidney disease, kidney damage keeps the kidneys from doing these important jobs the way they should. Kidney damage may be due to a physical injury or a disease like diabetes, high blood pressure, or other health problems.
If you have kidney disease, you may need to take medicines, limit salt and certain foods in your diet, get regular exercise, and more.
Finding and treating your kidney disease early can help slow or even stop kidney disease from getting worse. But if your kidney disease gets worse, it can lead to kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant to stay alive.
Can anyone get kidney disease?
Yes. Anyone can get kidney disease at any age. But some people are more likely than others to get it, including Hispanics. Your chances of getting kidney disease are greater if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, a family history of chronic kidney disease, are obese, or 60 years or older. Being Hispanic also means you are at greater risk. The more risk factors you have, the greater your chances of getting kidney disease.
Why are Hispanics at greater risk for kidney disease?
Hispanics are almost twice as likely to have diabetes as white Americans; in fact 10% of Hispanic Americans have diabetes. In older Hispanics diabetes is even more common—about 1 in 4 Hispanics over 45 years has diabetes. Having diabetes can lead to kidney disease and kidney failure, and diabetes causes kidney failure more often in Hispanics than in white Americans.
High blood pressure is also a serious problem for Hispanics. Nearly 1 in 4 Hispanics has high blood pressure and do not recognize the relationship between high blood pressure and kidney disease.
How does access to healthcare play a role?
Hispanics may have less access to healthcare than other Americans. For example, nearly 2 in 5 Hispanics are uninsured. Many Hispanics do not even know they have kidney disease until it's in the latest stages. By then it is too late to slow or stop the kidney damage from getting worse.
What to do?
Not all Hispanics will get kidney disease. And not everyone who has diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, older age, or a family history of kidney disease will get it. But if you have any of these risk factors you should:
- Get tested for kidney disease. There are two simple tests for kidney disease:
- A simple urine test checks to see if you have protein in your urine. Your body needs protein. But it should be in the blood, not the urine. Having a small amount of protein in your urine may mean that your kidneys are not filtering your blood well enough. This can be an early sign of kidney disease.
- A simple blood test for GFR, which stands for glomerular filtration rate. Your GFR number tells you how well your kidneys are working. The lab estimates your GFR using a simple blood test called creatinine (a waste product), along with your age, race, and gender.
- Get tested for diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. If you don't know whether you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease, it's important for you to find out.
- Live a healthy lifestyle. Be sure to exercise, eat a healthy diet, lose weight if needed, avoid smoking, and limit alcohol. A healthy lifestyle can keep you from getting kidney disease, and it can also help slow or stop kidney disease from getting worse.
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© 2015 National Kidney Foundation. All rights reserved. This material does not constitute medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. Please consult a physician for specific treatment recommendations.